A HISTORY OF BELPRE
Washington County, Ohio
C. E. DICKINSON, D. D.
Formerly Pastor of Congregational Church
Author of the History of the First Congregational Church
PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR BY
GLOBE PRINTING & BINDING COMPANY
PARKERSBURG, WEST VIRGINIA
Copyrighted in 1920
by C. E. DICKINSON
JUL -6 1920
To the Belpre Historical Society
ivith the hope that it will increase its efficiency and keep
alive the interest of the people in the prosperity
of their own community.
The history of a township bears a similar relation
to the history of a nation that the biography of an indi-
vidual bears to the record of human affairs.
Occasionally an individual accomplishes a work which
becomes an essential and abiding influence in the history
of the world. Such persons however are rare, although a
considerable number represent events which are important
in the minds of relatives and friends. The story of only
a few townships represents great historic events, but ac-
counts of the transactions in many localities are of im-
portance to the present and future residents of the place.
Belpre township is only a small spot on the map of Ohio
and a smaller speck on the map of the United' States.
Neither is this locality celebrated for the transaction of
many events of world-wide importance; at the same time
the early history of Belpre exerted an influence on the well
being of the State which makes an interesting story for
the descendants of the pioneers and other residents of the
township. Within a very few months of the arrival of
the first settlers at Marietta, they began to look for the
most favorable places to locate their homes. A consider-
able number of influential families discovered special at-
tractions in this locality and as a result the first branch
settlement was made here early the following Spring. Prob-
ably there is not a township in the west which had so large
a proportion of Revolutionary War officers among its pio-
neers as Belpre. The early history of this township was
considered so important by that eminent local historian
Dr. Samuel P. Hildreth that in his valuable Pioneer History
he devoted eighty pages to the history of Belpre, and as
many more to the lives of the early settlers here.
These two books, of rare value to students of the early
history of Ohio, were published eighty years ago and are
now found in only a few public libraries and as rare books
in a few homes; and they will probably never be repub-
lished. These facts led the present writer to copy a sub-
stantial portion of Dr. Hildreth's account of Belpre for
the purpose of publishing it in a convenient Brochure.
While engaged in this work we resolved to make to this
early record such additions as would continue the history
to the present time. This must be our apology for adding
a modest volume to the list of books of "the making of
which there is no end." When Dr. Hildreth prepared these
books he expended a large amount of labor and time in
collecting material from the few pioneers then living and
from children of pioneers. His books are not only reli-
able they furnish nearly all the reliable history of Belpre
during the first quarter of a century. For this reason it
has seemed best to us to copy the language in which the
history was originally written with only such omissions
and editorial changes as would adapt it to present readers.
In collecting material for the remaining portion of the
book we are indebted to Mrs. Laura Curtis Preston for per-
mission to copy freely from her excellent history of New-
bury (a part of Belpre). Also to Dr. Frank P. Ames for
an account of the Kidnapping Case in 1845 and other im-
portant facts and for his generous legacy of one hundred
dollars which made it possible to publish the History at
the present time, notwithstanding the large increase in cost.
We are also indebted to Mrs. Sophia D. Dale for valuable
facts respecting the Temperance Reform and other matters
To Charles L. McNeal for the account of Farmers Lodge of
Masons and to Mrs. C. L. McNeal for the story of the
Methodist Church, list of soldiers from Belpre, and other
valuable assistance. We have quoted freely from both
Williams and Martin R. Andrews Histories of Washington
The Roll of Honor of our Civil war, which we have
copied from these Histories, was the work of S. J. Hath-
away, Esq. who also furnished the account of "The Belpre
Our research has led us to examine histories, records,
letters, newspaper articles and diaries as well as the mem-
ories of the living. We would thank the Officers of the
Belpre Historical Society and other friends who have en-
couraged us in the prosecution of the work. Also all those
who have aided us, and added to the attractions of the
book by furnishing illustrations.
(The first seven Chapters are a reproduction of the portion respecting
Belpre of "Pioneer History" by Dr. Samuel P. Hildreth with a few
unimportant omissions and editorial changes. Chapter Eight is con-
densed from Dr. Hildreth's "Lives of the Pioneers.")
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I— Settlement.
Character of the Settlers. — Assassination of Captain Zeb-
ulon King. — Famine. — Abundance of food. — Two boys
killed at Neal's Station. — Mill on Little Hocking.
CHAPTER II— Indian War 1791-1795.
Beginning of the War. — Farmers Castle built and occupied.
— A list of Families and Persons in Farmers Castle.
CHAPTER III— Continued Hostilities
Loss of Pork. — Young Men Sent to Red Stone for Provis-
ions — John Shaw's Escape. — Attack on Waldo Put-
nam and Nathaniel Little. — Murder of Benoni Hul-
burt. — Two Letters by Mrs. Mary B. Dana.
Mutual Insurance. — Floating Mill. — Murders at Newbury.
— Scarlet Fever. — Schools. — Religious Services. — Spies
and Rangers. — Small Pox.
Domestic Manufacturers. — Experiments with Crops. —
Stone's and Goodale's Forts Built and Occupied. —
Kidnapping of Major Goodale.
Amusements in Farmers Castle. — Joshua Fleeharts Win-
ter Hunt. — Discovery of a Salt Spring. — A Night
Alarm. — A Providential Escape.
Murder of James Armstrongs Family. — Murder of James
Davis. — Close of the War. — Return of Families to their
Extracts from Lives of Early Settlers.— Captain Jonathan
Devol.— Griffin Greene.— Captain William Dana.— Col-
onel Nathaniel Cushing.— Mapor Jonathan Haskel.
Colonel Ebenezer Battelle.— Colonel Israel PutnanL—
Aaron Waldo Putnam.— Captain Jonathan Stone.—
Major Nathan Goodale.— Mapor Robert Bradford.
Captain Benjamin Miles.— Captain Perly Howe.—
Guthrie Brothers. — James Knowles. — Captam Eleazer
Curtis.— Bull Brothers.— Aaron Clough.— Peregrene
CHAPTER IX.— After the Indtan War.
Conditions at that time compared with the present.— Har-
man Blennerhassett and His Island Home.
CHAPTER X.— War of 1812.
CHAPTER XI.— After the War of 1812.
Wolf Hunt— Ao-ricultnral Fair and Prizes.— Transporta-
tion — Stor»k Raising and Driving.— Little Hockmg
Bridge.— Moving Captain Stones House. — Mexican
W^ar. — Temperance Reform.
CHAPTER XII. — Underground Railroad.
Slavery.— Tncreasin Of Anti-Slavery Sentiment in the North-
ern States.— Origin of the Term "ITnderground Rail-
road " Passinp- Fugitives from Station to Station.
The kidnappincr Case in 1845.— Case of Moses Davis.
—Escape of Harrv and his Wife.— Company of Fugi-
tives on Farm of Mr. Hovey and Their Escape.—
Speaker Treated to Rotten Eggs.
CHAPTER XIII— The Civil War.
Presidential Election 1850.— Secession of States.— Failure
of Efforts for Pease.— Aid for Soldiers.
Belpre's Roll of Honor.
CHAPTER XV— After the Civil War.
Railroad Building. — Vilj^ge Incorporated. — Suspension
Bridge. — Improvements.
CHAPTER XVI.— Education
Early Schools. — Belpre Avademy. — Belpre Seminary. —
High School. — First Commencement. — Libraries.
CHAPTER XVII— Religious History.
Early Services. — Congregationalists. — Methodists. — Uni-
versalists. — Baptists. — Colored Methodists. — Roman
Catholics. — Girls Missionary Society. — Sunday Schools
— Ladies Aid. — Burial of the Dead.
CHAPTER XVIII.— Organizations.
Womans Reading Club. — Rockland Reading Club. — Belpre
CHAPTER XIX— Fraternal Organizations.
Early Masonic Lodge. — Belpre Lodge 609. — Odd Fellows.
— Colored Odd Fellows. — Knights of Pythias. — Little
CHAPTER XX— European War.
Brief Outline. — Belpres Roll of Honor.
Personal Mention. — Closing Reflections.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
IMic Autlu^r Frontispiece
Mrs. Mary Uancrol't Uana Fronting- Page 32
Old Brick Meieitinghouse Fronting- Page 33
Curtis Home Fronting Page 48
Loring Home Fronting Page 49
Wirt Shcppard Home Fronting Page 64
Putnam Home Fronting Page 65
Porterfield Aleetinghouse Fronting Page 80
Universalis! Meetinghouse Fronting Page 81
Ames Home Fronting Page 104
C. C. Hale Home Fronting Page 105
Howe Home Fronting Page 112
Dana Home' Fronting Page 113
Stone Home Frontinig Page 128
John Dana Home Fronting Page 129
Congregational Meetinghouse, Village Fronting Page 144
Methodist Meetinghouse, Village Fronting Page 145
Schoolhouse, Village Fronting Page 160
Judge O. R. Loring Fronting Page 161
Dr. Franklin P. Ames Fronting Page 176
Hon. A. W. Glazier Fronting Page 177
George A. Howe Fronting Page 192
George Howe Bower Fronting Page 193
Mrs. William Armstrong Fronting Page 208
Mrs. Susan W. Dickinson Fronting Page 209
Corporal John Kenneth Christopher Fronting Page 224
Dr. Plerbert S. and John A. Curtis Fronting Page 225
Old Church Orsfan Fronting Page 232
Memorial Stones Fronting Page 2^^
S^^X\\^ wish we might give as an introduction to the
% XU- %) history of Belpre the story of an important
"^ ^ and interesting race of men who occupied this
^^^s— region at an unknown period in the past, but
left no record of themselves except the mounds of earth
which they erected. Marietta was an important center of
these monuments where the pioneers found the elevated
squares, the great mound, and the Covert Way. The latter
was destroyed many years ago, the others are still visible.
There were several small mounds in Belpre at the time of
the settlement. Many of these have been leveled through
cultivation of the soil, a few are still visible. The one
which is most complete is situated on the ridge in the east
part of Rockland on land now owned by Jesse Pride, Esq.
This Mound was evidently conical though now only a
few feet high. This is surrounded by a depression or ditch
now easily distinguishable and was doubtless several feet
in depth. This is encircled by a parapet with a diameter
of about one hundred feet. Like the much larger mound
at Marietta, it is laid out with mathematical precision.
This is the only one in Belpre with the ditch and parapet.
Another mound much larger than this stood in the middle
settlement and partly in the street. In 1874 the owner of
the farm at that time, Mr. Joseph Farson; determined to
examine and remove this mound which was then fourteen
feet high and about one hundred feet in circumference at
In Williams History of Washington County, we have
a description of the contents of this mound as follows.
"After digging down a short distance the first skele-
ton was discovered. It was in a fair state of preservation,
in fact so sound that doubts at once arose as to its an-
tiquity. A closer examination of the skull indicated that
it was that of an Indian and a bullet hole in the forehead
just above the eye at once suggested the probability that
the death and burial took place less than a century ago,
although there is no history or even a tradition concerning
such death and burial.f Toward the center of the mound
a skeleton was found which upon being exposed to the air,
at once proved its great age by crumbling to dust. As the
work progressed there were found at different depths, eight
more skeletons, irregularly arranged. Exposed to the air
these bones were soon reduced to their original elements.
With each skeleton was found a stone pipe, beads, buttons,
and balls of mussel shells, and an occasional collection of
arrow heads. A remarkable harpoon with a bone bearded
point WPS among the relics found. With one skeleton was
a pair of horns. This suggested that the builder of the
mound believed in a post mortem, combat with an evil one,
and the weapons were selected with reference to the home-
opathic nrinrinle 'SimUm SimHihvs c/xrantvr.' One of the
horns is artificial and was carx^ed from a bone of some
animal the outside only being finished. With this hastily
made counterfeit was a real horn over six inches in length.
In the center and a little below the base of the mound were
found remains of a skeleton mingled with burned charcoal
and calcinized bones. It was evident that the body had
been cremated, the lower extremities evidently had not
been subjected to the intensity of the flame and there is
evidence that the body, prior to cremation had been placed
in a sitting posture so that the head and trunk were speedily
consumed, leaving the rest of the body unburned. In
various parts of the mound twenty-two arrow heads were
found from three to five inches in length, numerous stone
axes, pipes and harpoons: nine hollow cylindrical tubes
eight of which were found together away from the skele-
tons; the ninth with the remains of the burned skeleton,
and very much smaller than the others. These tubes were
made of soapstone and the first mentioned were about one
foot in length. The maker of these tubes was thoroughly
acquainted with the art of glazing as their polished sur-
faces attest. The entire mound when taken away furnish-
ed two thousand cubic yards of earth."
From this description it is evident that at least this
particular mound was a burial place and the same was
probably true of others. The large mounds to honor pow-
erful chiefs. In this respect these pyramids of earth are
analagous to the granite pyramids of Egypt. On this ac-
fMay It not be roBslble that this was the skeleton of either Captain Zebulon. King or Benonl
Hulburt who were early killed by bullets and the localities of their burial are unknown.
count some scholars have found evidence that the mound
builders came to this continent from Egypt. It is how-
ever not altogether improbable that these mound builders
may have had an intuitive inspiration to honor their dead
by a pyramid without any suggestion from Egypt.
These silent monuments reveal very little to us beyond
the fact that this anti-historic race were neither man-like
apes nor ape-like men but human beings in some ways at
least superior to the Indians who immediately preceded
the settlement by white people. We will commence our
narrative with the first connection of this valley with Euro-
peans. The French commenced settlements in Canada in
1608 taking possession of the country by the right of dis-
covery. During the following century and a half they
traveled inland along the chain of great lakes to the Mississ-
ippi vallev, discovered the great river and sailed down that
river to the Gulf of Mexico. They laid claim by this right
of discovery to the whole valley, though outside of Canada
they established only a few posts for trading with the
natives. In 1749 they took formal possession of the Ohio
valley. This they did by erecting wooden crosses and
burying leaden plates at the mouths of the principal tribu-
taries. An expedition started from Lake Erie and passed
do^\^n the Allegheny and Ohio rivers under the leadership
of Captain Celeron. One of the plates buried at the mouth
of the Muskingum was found by a company of boys in 1798.
These boys supposed the principal use for lead was to make
bullets and had used a part of the plate for that purpose
when they were discovered and the remainder of the plate
was preserved. A similar plate was found at the mouth
of the Kanawha in 1845. The following is a translation of
the inscription on this plate and is probably similar to that
on all the plates : "In the year 1749, in the reign of Louis
XV, of France, M. Celeron, commandant of a detachment
sent by the Marquis De La Galessoneire, Captain General
of New France, in order to re-establish tranquility among
some villages of savages in these parts, and buried this
plate at the mouth of the river Chi-no-da-e-the, (Kenawha)
on the 18 August near the Ohio, and of all lands of both
sides to the source of such rivers as have enjoyed, or ought
to have enjoyed, the preceding named King of France and
they have maintained themselves by force of arms and by
treaties especially by those of Resabach, Ulback and Aux-
By the treaty of Paris in 1763 the title of all the Miss-
issippi Valley east of that river and so including all the
valley of the Ohio was transferred to Great Britain.
The people of Virginia soon became interested in the
fertile lands in this valley and the Ohio Land Company was
formed to survey and dispose of these lands. The Revolu-
tionary war interfered with the work of this company but
meanwhile George Washington made a trip down the val-
ley and became owner of some of the best land. Mrs.
Laura Curtis Preston, in her excellent history of Newbury,
describes this journey as follows:
"George Washington made a journey down the Ohio
river in 1770. The following is from his journal. About
six or seven miles below the mouth of Little Canawha, we
came to a small creek on the west side which the Indians
called the Little Hockhocking.***the lands below the Little
Canawha appear broken and indifferent but opposite to the
Little Hockhocking there is a bottom of exceeding good
land. The lower end of this bottom is opposite to a small
island of which I dare say little is to be seen when the river
is high. (The land referred to is now called Newbury
Bar.) On his return journey they camped opposite the
Little Hockhocking which may be distinguished by a large
stone just at its mouth (Ohio Arch and History Quarterly
Oct. 1908.) That stone still remains, just as it was when
Washington saw it, firmly imbedded in the banks of the
stream, Washington was induced to purchase this "bot-
tom of good land" now called Washingtons Bottom in West
Virginia, and would have purchased the bottom land oppo-
site, of which he speaks in his journal, had this land not
been on the Indian side of the river."
After the public lands, which were originally claimed
by the states, had been transfered to the General Govern-
ment, it was a policy of Congress to keep the lands vacant
until they had been surveyed and provisions made for their
In 1785, two years before the Ohio Company purchased
this land, (^en. Richard Butler was sent down the Ohio
river for the purpose of warning any squatters he might
find to vacate their claims. He says in his journal. "Oct.
8. Found settlers on the head of the first island below
the Little Hockhocking and also on t^e Ohio shore further
down the river." "To the people on the island who seemed
to be very reasonable people and the women appeared clean
and neatly dressed, he sent some proclamations warning
them off the island but sterner measures were resorted to
in the case of the settlers below. (Craigs olden times
1847.) Gen. Butler also refers to the large stone at the
mouth of the Little Hockhocking. The island mentioned
was doubtless Mustapha."
The army officers who settled in Marietta and Belpre
had very high esteem for the French, who had aided us in
the dark days of the Revolution both with money and men
and without this aid we might have failed to secure our
independence. This esteem is preserved in the names giv-
en to these places. The principal city in the settlement
was honored with the name of the beautiful Queen Mane
Antionette shortened to Marietta, and the first out station
was Belle prairie (beautiful meadow) contracted to Belpre.
This township was first authorized by the following
action of the Court of Quarter Sessions in 1790. "Resolved
that townships number one (1) and two (2) in the tenth
(10) range and number one (1) in the ninth (9) range
be and they are hereby incorporated and included in one
township by the name of Belpre." As thus constituted
this township, was bounded on the north by territory in
Warren, Barlow and Fairfield townships. On the east and
south by the Ohio river and on the west by what is now
Athens County, Decatur and a fraction of Fairfield town-
ships. Williams History of Washington County states that
"in 1797 the court of Quarter Sessions declared that all
the territory in Ohio Company's purchase south of the
townships of Waterford and Marietta and north of Galli-
polis be known as Belpre township, this embraced parts of
the present counties of Athens, Vinton and Ross, together
with fractions of Hocking, Meigs, Jackson and Pike."
This territory was divided and incorporated into counties
and townships from time to time until in 1855, it included
only the territory now embraced in Belpre and Dunham
townships. A territory somewhat irregular on account of
its river boundary, but embracing only a little more land
than a regular congressional township of six miles square.
During that year petitions were presented to the County
Commissioners from citizens of Warren and Belpre for the
erection of a new township composed of territory embraced
between the following boundaries, viz : "commencing on the
Ohio river three miles south of the north line of township
one (1) range nine (9) and running west to the west line of
range ten (10) and south of the north line of township
two (2) range ten (10) and township one (1) range nine
(9) except section thirty-six (36) of township two (2)
range nine (9). Parties were heard in favor and against
said township and on examination of the petitions, it was
found that a majority of householders residing within the
boundaries of said change were in favor of the same, and it
was resolved that the said territory as described above be
considered a new township. Ordered that the township
now formed be called Dunham." By this action of the com-
missioners the township was virtually bisected, leaving but
little more than half the territory of a township of six
miles square. The shape on the east and south conforms
to the direction of the river so that there are nearly four-
teen miles of river frontage. The lands embraced within
the two river terraces are among the most fertile and pro-
ductive farming and gardening lands in the Ohio valley
while the hills in the background are well adapted to pas-
turage and fruit raising. The scenery in various parts of
the town is somewhat monotonous although there are sev-
eral high points from which quite extensive views of the
surrounding country are obtained, and there are several
romantic ravines among the hills. One of these a little
back of the village, on Congress Creek, has been known as
"Low Gap." This has been a favorite resort for parties
of young people and Mrs. Kate Browning Foutz a daughter
of Belpre has honored it by the following poetic gem.
"Low Gap, the place where fays and fairies dwell,
Search far and wide, there is no sweeter dell.
There dawns come later and twilight early falls,
There silence reigns unbroken save the birds low calls.
The hum of insects or drone of bees,
The murmuring brook or rustling trees,
And where the interlacing branches meet
Above some pool, pellucid, sweet,
The flashing minnows sport and turn
Beneath the mirrored greenness of the fern."
This brief description of Belpre, may help us to ap-
preciate the early history as given in detail by Dr. S. P.
The first eight chapters are a republication from Dr.
Hildreth's "Pioneer History" and "Lives of Pioneers."t
■fDr. ruidretli lived and practiced medicine several years in Bolpre.
!> <^r ^ ^ the winter following the landing of the first
^ ^ ^ pioneers at Marietta, the directors of the Ohio
^ ^ ^ Company sent out exploring parties to examine
-^^6«r- their purchase, which was as yet a terra in-
cognita. The main object of these committees was to
select suitable places for the formation of their first settle-
ments. Among the earliest and most desirable locations
reported was a tract on the right bank of the Ohio river,
commencing a short distance above the mouth of the Little
Kanawha, and extending down the Ohio four or five miles,
terminating at the narrows two miles above the Little
Hocking. About one mile below the outlet of the latter
stream, the river again bent to the south enclosing a rich
alluvion extending two or three miles in length and one mile
wide, where was formed another settlement called New-
bury, or the lower colony, but included within the boundar-
ies of Belpre. The main body of the New Colony's tract
was divided into two portions known as upper and middle
settlements. The lands on the river were of the richest
quality; rising as they recede from the Ohio on to an ele-
vated plain thirty or forty feet higher than the low bot-
toms, and extending back to the base of the hills. The
plain was in some places more than half a mile in width,
forming, with the bottoms, alluvions nearly a mile in ex-
tent. The soil on the plains was in some places a fertile
loamy sand; in others inclined to gravel but everywhere
covered with a rich growth of forest trees, and producing
fine crops of small grains. About one mile below the Little
Kanawha this plain came into the river presenting a lofty
mural front of eighty or one hundred feet, above the sur-
face of the water. This precipitous bank is continued for
half a mile and on its brow and for some distance back is
stocked with evergreens, chiefly different varieties of
cedar. That portion of the plain is known as the bluff
and is located near the head of Blennerhassett's Island,
close by the landing and the crossing place to the mansion
erected a few years later by this celebrated man. The bluff
divides the upper settlement from that below. The upper
lay on a beautiful curve of the river which formed nearly
a semicircle, the periphery of which was about one and
one-half miles, and rose gradually from the banks of the
river on to the second bottom by a natural glacis, the
grade and beauty of which no art of man could excel.
From the lower end of the bluff the plain gradually receded
from the river leaving a strip of rich bottom land about
three miles in length and from one-fourth to one-third of
a mile in width. This distance, like the preceeding, was
laid off into farms about forty rods wide, and extending
back to the hills, which rise by a moderate slope to an ele-
vation of one hundred feet above the surface of the plain
and were clothed with oak and hickory to the top. This
charming location was named Belle Prairie, or Beautiful
Meadow, but is now generally written Belpre. The settle-
ment was composed of about forty associates, who formed
themselves into a Company and drew their lots, after they
were surveyed, and platted in the winter of 1788-9.
CHARACTER OF THE SETTLERS
The larger portion of the individuals who formed this
association had served as officers in the Revolution, and
when the army was disbanded retired with a brevet pro-
motion. To a stranger it seemed very curious that every
house he passed should be occupied by a commissioned offi-
cer. No settlement ever formed west of the mountains
contained so many men of real merit, sound practical sense,
and refined manners. They had been in the School of
Washington and were nearly or quite all personally ac-
quainted with that great and good man. A contemporary
writes : "In this little community were found those sterling
qualities which should ever form the basis of the social
and civil edifice, and are best calculated to perpetuate and
cherish our republican institutions. Some of them had
been liberally educated, and all had received the advan-
tages of common New England schools in early life. They
were habituated to industry and economy, and brought up
under the influences of morality and religion. These men
had been selected to lead their countrymen in battle and to
defend their rights, not for their physical strength as of
old, but for their moral standing and superior intellect.
In addition to these advantages they had also received a
second education in the army of the revolution where they
heard the precepts of wisdom and witnessed the examples
of bravery and fortitude; learning at the same time the
necessity of subordination to law and good order, in pro-
moting the happiness and prosperity of mankind."!
The Belpre associates who had passed the winter in
Marietta commenced moving on to their farms early in
April ; several families however did not occupy their farms
until the following year. Log houses, mostly small, were
built near the bank of the river, for the convenience of
water and a free circulation of air; into these the families
Then commenced the cutting down and girdling the
immense forest trees which covered the rich bottoms and
lifted their lofty heads towards the clouds. A fence of
rails was built on the back side of their fields, next the
woods to protect their crops from the cattle, but the grounds
were left open on the river bank. Paths between the neigh-
boring houses ran through their fields or on the outside of
the fence in the margin of the woods. In several places
springs of pure water gushed out under the banks of the
river and ran in gentle rills to the Ohio, affording a rich
treat to the fortunate neighbor in the heat of summer, when
compared with the warm and often turbid water of the
CAPT. ZEBULON KING KILLED.
Soon after the pioneers had commenced laboring on
their lands their ardor was for a while paralized, and their
hope of undisturbed and quiet possession of their new
homes greatly weakened, by the murder of Capt. King by
the Indians. His land lay in the middle settlement and
while he was busily engaged in chopping on May 1st he
was shot and scalped by two Indians. It was thought at
the time they were Indians who had escaped from confine-
ment in Fort Harmar, where they had been detained since
the outrage, at Duncan's Falls the previous summer.
Captain King was from Rhode Island, where his family
yet remained. He intended to move them after he had
jNotes from Judge Barker.
prepared a house and raised a crop for their support. He
had been an officer in the United States Army and was a
most excellent man. His loss was deeply felt and lamented
by all his fellow pioneers.
Owing to the laborious task in preparing and fencing
the land, it was past the middle of June before all the corn
was planted. Though late, if the sun could have penetrated
the thick branches of the girdled trees and thoroughly
warmed the earth, pushing forward the growth of the corn,
as it does in an open sunny exposure, there might have
been a tolerable crop, but while the tender ears were still
in the milk, a frost, early in October, destroyed the hopes
of the husbandmen, leaving them with a scanty allowance
for the Winter, and the prospect of great suffering before
another crop could be raised; and although two or three
hundred acres had been planted in the settlement the
amount fit for use was very small. The calamity was gen-
eral throughout the region west of the mountains and was
the more severely felt as Indian corn was their only source
for bread. In the earlier settlements at head water there
was a tolerable crop of wheat, and on the older and early
planted fields the corn had ripened before the frost, so
that those who had money could purchase bread for their
families, but few of the new settlers had the means of
doing this, their cash having been spent on the journey and
for provision since their arrival. By the middle of Feb-
ruary scarcity of bread stuff began to be seriously felt.
Many families had no other meal for their bread than that
made from mouldy corn and were sometimes destitute even
of this for several days in succession.
Such portions of the damaged grain as could be se-
lected hard enough for meal sold for nine Shillings (or
$1.50) a bushel; and when ground in hand mills and made
into bread, few stomachs were able to digest it or even to
retain it for a few minutes. It produced sickness and
vomiting. The late Charles Devoll, Esq., one of the early
settlers, then a small boy, used to relate with much feeling
his gastrinomic trials with this mouldy meal, made into a
dish called sap porridge, which, when composed of sound
com meal and fresh saccharine juice of maple afforded
both a nourishing and savory food. The family had been
without bread for two days when the father returned from
Marietta just at evening with a supply of mouldy corn.
The hand mill was put into immediate operation and the
meal cooked into sap porridge, as it was then the season
of sugar making. The famished children eagerly swallow-
ed the unsavory mess, which was almost immediately re-
jected, reminding us of the deadly pottage of the children
of the Prophet, but lacked the healing power of an Elijah
to render it salutary and nourishing. Disappointed of ex-
pected relief, the poor children went supperless to bed, to
dream of savory food and plenteous meals unrealized in
their waking hours.
It was during this period that Isaac Williams, a plain
hearted honest backwoodsman, who had been brought up on
the frontiers, and lived on the Virginia side opposite the
mouth of the Muskingum, displayed his benevolent feeling
for the suffering colonists. He had opened an extensive
tract for corn land three years before, and being enabled
to plant early, had raised, in 1789 a large crop of several
hundred bushels of sound corn. With a liberality which
should ever make his name dear to the descendants of the
pioneers, and to all who admire generous deeds, he now in
their most pressing necessity, distributed this corn among
the inhabitants, at the low rate of three shillings, or fifty
cents a bushel, the common price in plenteous years; when
at the same time he was offered, and urged to take, a dollar
and a quarter by speculators, for his whole crop; for man
has ever been disposed to fatten on the distress of his fel-
lowman. Turning from them with a blunt but decided re-
fusal, he not only parted with his corn at the moderate rate,
but also prudently proportioned the number of bushels, ac-
cording to the number of individuals in a family. An
empty purse was no bar to his generosity or the wants of
the needy applicant, but he was equally supplied with him
who had money; and a credit given until a more favorable
season should enable him to pay the debt. Such deeds are
rare in a highly civilized community, and were more num-
erous in the early settlement of the country than since.
The coarse hunting shirt and rough bear skin cap often
inclosed a tender benevolent heart and covered a wise
thoughtful head. Hospitality was one of the cardinal vir-
tues with the early settler and no people ever practiced it
more heartily and constantly than the pioneers along the
borders of the Ohio. The corn of this good man supplied
their wants for a season, but was all expended long before
the crop of 1790 was fit for use. Articles of food were
found in the natural productions of the earth which neces-
sity alone could have discovered. Only a small portion of
the inhabitants had salted any meat in the preceeding
autumn; there being but a few hogs or cattle in the
country, except here and there a cow or a yoke of oxen,
brought on by the colonists from New England. Their ani-
mal food, therefore, was mainly procured from the woods
and consisted of venison, with now and then the flesh of a
bear. The wild animals were scarce however in all the
surrounding countiy, as the Indians had killed them, as
they said to keep them from the whites. (In the Spring
the wild deer are very thin and poor and their flesh of an
inferior quality.) The river afforded an abundant
supply of fish ; but it so happened that but few of the in-
habitants were skilled in the art of taking them. Salt was
also so scarce and dear, being eight dollars a bushel, that
it could hardly be aff"orded to cure them, so that what were
caught one day must not be kept longer than the next.
Fortunate was the family that had been able to save a few
pounds of salt pork or bacon to boil with the native gro\vth
of esculent plants that began early in the spring to appear
in the woods. Of these the nettle furnished the earliest
supply, which in some places grew in large patches and
whose tops were palatable and nutritious. The young
juicy plants of the Celandine aflforded also a nourishing
and pleasant dish. It sprang up about the old logs and
fences around the clearing, especially where brush had
been burned the year before, with astonishing luxuriance;
and being early in its growth, afforded a valuable article
of food before the purslane w^as of sufficient size for boiling.
This later vegetable, however, was their main dependence
at a later period.
Wherever the soil had been broken by the planters and
exposed to the sunshine, a luxuriant crop of this nutritious
plant sprang up from the virgin soil where the seeds had
been scattered ages before by the Creator of all things, and
lain dormant in the earth. In spots where not a single
plant of purslane was seen while covered with the forest,
and probably not a shoot had grown for ages, it now
sprang up as by magic. When boiled with a small piece
of venison and a little salt, it furnished the principal food
of the inhabitants for six or eight weeks, although many
lived on it without any meat for many a day. Toward
the close of their suffering so great was the scarcity that,
in one of the most respectable and intelligent families which
happened to be rather numerous, the smaller children were
kept on one boiled potato a day and finally were reduced to
half of one. The head of the family had held the office of
Major in the army of the United States, and was one of the
most worthy and excellent men in the Colony.
His children, with their descendants, now rank among
the first for influence and wealth in the state of Ohio. The
mother of these half starved children did all she could for
the comfort of those around her. Among her other multi-
farious engagements, she had consented to cook for a young
man who owned a lot adjacent to that of her husband, tho
he ate in his own cabin. The bread was made of poor,
musty meal, and while it was baking she always sent the
children away to play and immediately locked it up in the
young mans chest lest they should see it, and cry for a
piece of that she had no right to give them. (This young
man was from Boston and educated at Cambridge.) When
a few kernels of com were dropped in grinding, in the hand
mill, the children picked them up like chickens and ate them
raw. A few of the inhabitants had cows for which the
forest, in summer, afforded ample supplies of food. Their
milk assisted greatly in the support of their owners and
especially their children. In the latter part of the Winter
the Sap of the sugar tree, boiled down with meal, made a
rich, nourishing food. This tree was so abundant that
great quantities of sugar could have been made to enlarge
their scanty store of food ; but the want of kettles prevented
their profiting from this prolific magazine which the God
of nature has stored up for His children. By the middle
of July the new corn was in the milk and fit for roasting
and boiling; this with the squashes and beans ended their
fears of actual starvation. So urgent was their necessity,
however, that they could not wait for the vegetables to
attain their usual size before they were deemed fit for eat-
ing, but the beans, as soon as the pods were set, and the
grains of corn formed in the ear, were gathered and boiled
with a little salt and meal, if they had any, into a kind of
vegetable soup, which was eaten with great relish by
the half starved children and their parents. As the season
was remarkably favorable the sight of the rich crop of corn
was hailed as a jubilee not only by man, but by the domestic
animals, some of which had suffered equally with their mas-
ters. Even the dogs fell upon the young and tender corn
at night and devoured it with eagerness. It was some time
before they could discover this depredator of their crops.
By watching they caught the dogs in the act of pulling
down and eating the corn, and were compelled to tie them
up at night until it became too hard for them.
During the whole Summer a great scarcity of animal
food was felt. In August the family of one of the most
enterprising and worthy men of that suffering community
had been without any meat for several days. Having one
of those long barrelled fowling pieces which he had been
accustomed to use along the shore and inlets of Rhode Is-
land, he walked out into the woods with little hope of suc-
cess. Directly he came across a fawn, or half errown deer,
and at the first shot brought it to the ground. While in the
act of cutting its throat, and he felt sure that all the meat
was his own, he said his heart and affections ran up in a
glow of gratitude to the Almighty, such as he had never
felt before for this unexpected and striking interposition
of his Providence in this time of need. This man had been
several times in battle, and escaped without a wound ; and
vet no event in his previous life had awakened his gratitude
like this. It was the first and only deer he ever killed. The
meat served to supply their wants for several days.
ABUNDANCE OF FOOD
The bountiful crop of the following Autumn soon made
amends for their long lent, of more than three times forty
days continuance. The deer and turkey, that now came
around their fields in numerous flocks, supplied them with
the greatest abundance of animal food, causing them to
forget the sufferings of the past and lift their hearts in
gratitude to that God, who had thus bountifully spread a
table for them in the wilderness. Like the quails about
the camp of the Israelites, the turkeys came up to their very
doors in such multitudes, that none but the most skeptical
could fail of seeing the hand of a Kind Providence, driving
them from their coverts in the forest so near their dwellings
that they could be killed or taken within their fields. They
were so abundant and so little accustomed to the sight of
man, that the boys killed many of them with clubs and the
aid of their dogs. This year terminated their trials and
sufferings from the want of food. All the subsequent years
were crowned with abundant crops and their greatest
troubles were from the danger of being killed by the In-
dians while cultivating their fields. But habit soon inured
them to trials of this kind, and they went forth to their
labors with the consciousness that they were better able to
contend with and overcome the savages than to strive
against the allotments of Providence.
TWO BOYS KILLED AT NEILS STATION.
In August the settlement was alarmed by the killing
of two boys by the Indians, at Neils Station, a small stock-
ade on the Little Kanawha a mile from its mouth and in
the immediate vicinity of Belpre. It was alarming as it
manifested the hostility of the Indians, who might at any
time fall upon and kill the inhabitants when they least ex-
pected it, and for which they were not prepared, as they
pretended to be at peace with the whites. The boys were
twelve and fifteen years of age, and belonged to a German
family that lived in a small cabin about forty rods above
Neils blockhouse. They had been down to the Station, Sat-
urday afternoon, and just at night, on their way home, went
into the edge of the woods on the outside of a corn field to
look for the cows. The Indians were lying in ambush near
the path and killed them with tomahawks without firing
a gun. The bodies were not found until the next morning,
bat as they did not come home, their parents were fearful
of their fate. That night the Indians attempted to set fire
to the block house by inclosing a brand of fire in dry poplar
bark and pushing it through a port hole. It was discov-
ered and extinguished by a woman who lay in bed near the
port hole, I)efore it communicated to the house. In the
morning the alarm was given, and a party of armed men
went out from Belpre and assisted in burying the two
boys. The Indians departed without doing any other
MILL AT LITTLE HOCKING.
In the Spring of 1790, the necessity of building a grist
mill became so apparent that some of the enterprising in-
habitants, among them Griflin Green, Esq. and Robert Brad-
ford, entered into the laborious and expensive undertaking
of building a mill. Their bread stuff thus far had been
ground in the hand mills. Two mill wrights from Red
Stone by the name of Baldwin and Applegate, who had
assisted at the mill on Wolf Creek were employed as build-
ers. The Ohio Company made a donation of one hundred
and sixty acres of land at the mill site to encourage the
work. The dam was erected and the timbers prepared for
the mill by January 1st following, when the Indian war
broke out, and the work was suspended, and not again re-
sumed until after its close. The spot chosen was on a
southern bend of the stream where it approaches within a
mile and a half of the Ohio. A broad low gap in the river
hills made it easy of access from the settlements. The
check put to the work by the war was a sad disappointment
to the inhabitants who had still to labor at the hand mill,
until the autumn of the following year when the floating
mill built by Captain Devoll relieved them of one of their
most grievous burdens. At the close of the war the work
was completed, and the site has been occupied by a mill to
this day, (1848).
INDIAN WAR 1791.
OUTBREAK OF THE WAR.
y irji ^ HE suffering and distress attendant on a famine
1^ '4 ^ had no sooner disappeared, than they were
% t^ assailed by a new calamity. The County Court
J^^^s:^ of quarter sessions met at Marietta on the first
Monday in January 1791. A considerable number of the
most active men were called there to attend as jurors, wit-
nesses etc. As it was a laborious task to get there by water
in canoes, many of them went up on Saturday and Sunday
The Court had barely opened on Monday, when word
was brought of the sacking and slaughter at Big Bottom.
It was immediately adjourned, and the men returned to
their homes full of anxiety for the fate of their own families.
Notice had been sent to the settlers at Belpre from Wolf
Creek mills at the same time it was sent to Marietta.
The women and children suffered much from fear, expect-
ing every hour that the Indians would attack them. The
inhabitants were scattered along on the river bank, living
in their log cabins, without any preparation for defense,
not expecting an Indian war, as a treaty had been made
only two years before. Captain Jonathan Stone, at the
upper settlement had built a small block house for his
dwelling, and into this the women and children were
gathered on Monday night. On Tuesday there was a gen-
eral gathering of all the heads of families, to consult on
what was best to be done.
They decided that all, about thirty families, should be
collected at the middle settlement where Col. Cushing and
Col. Battelle had already built two large log houses, and
erect a spacious, strong, and well arranged garrison, suffi-
cient for the accommodation of all the inhabitants. The
spot selected was on the bank of the river, about half a
mile below the bluff, and nearly against the center of Back-
us Island. A swamp about six rods back from the Ohio
protected the rear, while the river protected the front.
The upper and lower ends opened into a smooth level bot-
tom, suitable for a road by which to enter or depart from
the garrison. The work was commenced the first week in
January-, and prosecuted with the utmost energy. As fast
as the block houses were built the families moved into
them. These were thirteen in number arranged in two
rows with a wide street between. The basement story
was in general twenty feet square, and the upper about
twenty-two feet, thus projecting over the lower one and
forming a defense from which to protect the doors and
windows below, in an attack. They were built of round
logs a foot in diameter, and the intersitives nicely chinked
and pointed with mortar. The doors and window shut-
ters were made of thick oak planks, or puncheon, and se-
cured with stout bars of wood on the inside.***The pickets
were made of quartered oak timber growing on the plain
back of the garrison, formed from trees about a foot in
diameter, fourteen feet long, and set four feet in the ground
leaving them ten feet high, over which no enemy could
mount without a ladder. The smooth side was set out-
ward; and the palisades strengthened and kept in their
places by stout ribbons, or wall pieces, pinned to them
with inch tree nails, on the inside. The spaces between
the houses were filled up with pickets, and occupied three
or four times the width of the houses, forming a contin-
uous wall, or inclosure about eighty rods in length and six
rods wide. The palisades on the river side filled the whole
space and projected over the edge of the bank, leaning on
rails and posts set to support them. They were sloped in
this manner for the admission of air during the heat of
summer. Gates of stout timbers were placed in the East
and West ends of the garrison, openine' in the middle, ten
feet wide, for the ingress and egress of teams, and to take
in the cattle in case of an attack. A still wider gate opened
near the center of the back wall for hauling in wood, and
all were secured with strong heavy bars. Two or three
smaller ones, called water gates, were nlaced on the river
side, as all their water was procured from the Ohio. When
si"Tis of Indians were discovered by the spies, the domestic
animals were driven within the gates at night. At sunset
all the avenues were closed. Every house was filled with
families and as new settlers arrived occasionally during
the war some houses contained several families.
The corner block houses on the back side of the garri-
son were provided with watch towers running up eight feet
above the roof, where a sentry was constantly kept. When
the whole was completed, the inmates of the station called
it "Farmers Castle" a name very appropriate, as it was
built and occupied by farmers. The directors of the Ohio
Company, with their characteristic beneficience, paid the
expense of erecting three of the block houses, and the money
was distributed among the laborers. The view of the
Castle from the Ohio river was very picturesque and im-
posing; looking like a small fortified city amidst the sur-
ronndino- wilderness. During the war there were about
seventy able bodied men mustered on the roll for mili-
tary duty, and the police within assumed that of a
regularly besieged fort, as in fact it was a great portion of
the time, the Indians watching in small parties, more or
less constantly, for a chance to kill or capture the inhabi-
tants when they least expected it. At sunrise the roll was
called by the orderly sergeant, and if any man had over-
slept in the morning, or neglected to answer to his name,
the penalty was fixed as the cutting out the stump of a
tree level with the ground, stumps being thickly scattered
over the surface within the Castle. This penalty was so
rigidly exacted that but few stumps remained at the close
of the war. A regular commander was appointed with
Maj. Nathan Goodale was the first Captain, and held
that office until he removed into his own garrison in 1793,
when Colonel Cushing took the command. The flagstaff
stood a few yards west of the back gate near the house of
Colonel Cushing on which floated the stars and stripes.
Near the staff was a large howitzer, or swivel gun, mount-
ed on a platform incased in wood, hooped with iron bands
and painted to resemble a six pounder. It was so adjusted
as to revolve on a socket, and thus point to any part of
the works. During the Spring and Summer months, when
there was any probability of Indians, it was fired regularly
morning and evening. It could be distinctly heard for sev-
eral miles around, especially up and down the river; the
banks and hills, re-echoing the report. This practice no
doubt kept the Indians in awe, and warned them not to ap-
proach a post whose inmates were habitually watchful, and
so well prepared to defend themselves. Around this spot
it was customary for loungers and news mongers to as-
semble, to discuss the concerns of the Castle and tell the
news of the day. It was also the rallying point in case of
an assault and the spot where the muster roll was called
morning and evening. The spies and rangers here made
reports of their discoveries to the Commandant; in short
it was "place d'armes" of Farmers Castle.
In the upper room of every house was kept a large
cask or hogshead constantly filled with water to be used in
case of fire. It was a part of the duty of the Officer of the
day to inspect every house, and see that the cask was well
filled. Another duty was to prevent any stack of grain or
fodder being placed so near the Castle as to endanger the
safety of the buildings should the Indians set them on
fire or to shelter them in case of an assault.
They also inspected the gates, pickets, and houses, to
see that all were in repair and well secured at night. They
received dispatches from abroad, or sent out expresses to
the other stations. Their authority was absolute and the
government strictly military. The greatest and principal
danger to the settlers arose from their exposure to attacks
when engaged during the Spring and Summer months in
working in their fields. The clearings of some of the in-
habitants lay at the distance of three miles, while others
were within rifle shot of the garrison. Those could only
be visited in companies of fifteen or twenty men. Their
exposure was not confined to their actual engagement in
their fields, but chiefly in going to and returning from their
labors. While at their work, sentries were constantly
placed in the edge of the adjoining forest; and flanking
parties examined the ground when marching through the
wood between the upper and lower settlements. It was a
great labor to transport their crops for so long a distance
after they were harvested, although it was chiefly done by
water. For these reasons, in the second year of the war,
it was decided as best for them to divide into smaller com-
munities. Accordingly, a strong stockade garrison was
built three miles above called "Stones Garrison," and one
below called "Goodales Garrison." To these several fami-
lies, whose lands adjoined, removed and continued to occupy
them until the close of the war. Fresh emigrants how-
ever continually arrived so that Farmers Castle remained
A list of families in Farmers Castle at Belpre in 1792.
' No. 1 — Colonel Ebenezer Battelle, wife, and four chil-
dren: Cornelius, Ebenezer, Thomas and Louisa.
No. 2 — Captain William James, wife, and ten children :
Susan, Anna, Esther, Hannah, Abigal and Polly; William,
John, Thomas, and Simeon. Also Isaac Barker, wife, and
eight children: Michael, Isaac, Joseph, William and Tim-
othy; Anna, Rhoda, and Nancy. Also Daniel Cogswell,
wife and five children : John, Abigal, Peleg, Job and Daniel.
3. — Captain Jonathan Stone wife and three children:
Benjamin Franklin, Samuel, and Rufus Putnam.
No. 4 — Colonel Nathaniel Cushing, wife, and six chil-
dren: Nathaniel, Henry, Varnum, Thomas, Sally and Eliza-
beth. Also Captain Jonathan Devoll, wife, and six chil-
dren: Henry, Charles, Barker, Francis, Sally and Nancy,
with a nephew, Christopher Devoll.
No. 5 — Isaac Pierce, wife, and three children : Samuel,
Joseph and Phebe. Also Nathaniel Little, wife, and one
child. Also Joseph Barker, wife and one Child, Joseph,
born in Belpre.
No. 6 — Maj. Nathan Goodale, wife, and seven children:
Betsy, Cynthia, Sally, Susan, Henrietta, Timothy, and Lin-
No. 7 — In the South west corner of the garrison, A.
W. Putnam, wife, and one child, William Pitt born in the
garrison. Also D. Loring, wife, and seven children: Is-
rael, Rice and Jesse ; Luba, Bathsheba, Charlotte and Polly.
Major Oliver Rice lived in the family of Mr. Loring. Also
Captain Benjamin Miles, wife, and five children: Benja-
min, Buckmaster and Hubbard, (twins), William, Tappan
No. 8 — Griffin Green, Esq., wife, and four children,
Richard, Philip, Griffin and Susan.
No. 9 — John Rouse, wife, and eight children: Michael,
Bathsheba, Cynthia, Betsy, Ruth, Stephen, Robert and Bar-
ker, twins. Also Maj. Robert Bradford wife and three
or four children. Several of these children died of scarlet
fever, others were born after the war.
No. 10 — Captain John Leavens, wife, and six children :
Joseph, and John, Nancy, Fanny, Esther and Matilda.
Also Captain William Dana, wife, and eight children:
Luther, William, (young men) Edmond, Stephen, John,
Charles and Augustus; Betsy Mary and Fanny.
Between 10 and 11 there was a long low building, call-
ed the barracks in which a small detachment of United
States troops were quartered.
No. 11 — Mrs. Dunham widow of Daniel Dunham, who
died in 1791, one son and two daughters. Also Captain
Israel Stone, wife, and ten children : Sardine, a young man,
Israel, Jasper, Augustus, B. Franklin, and Columbus; Bet-
sy, Matilda, Lydia and Harriet, born in the Castle.
No. 12 — Benjamin Patterson, wife, and six children:
three of the rangers, or spies, who were single men, board-
ed with him, viz : John Shepherd, George Kerr, and Matthew
Kerr. Patterson served as a spy three years for the settle-
ment at Belpre and then moved down the river. Also
Benoni Hurlburt, wife, and four childrern.
No. 13 — Colonel Alexander Oliver, wife, and eleven
children: Launcelot, a young man, Alexander, John and
David, Lucretia, Betsy, Sally, Mehala, Electa, Mary. Also
Colonel Daniel Bent, wife and four children : Nathan, Dan-
iel, Dorcas, and daughter who married Joel Oaks. Also
Silas Bent, Esq., oldest son of the Colonel, wife and two or
Several other families lived in Farmers Castle for a
short time and then proceeded down the river but the above
list contains nearly all the permanent and substantial heads
of families who settled in Belpre in 1789 and 1790.
Joshua Fleehart, wife, and four children, lived in a
small cabin east of block house No. 3. He was a noted
hunter and supplied the garrison with fresh meat. Soon
after the war closed he removed nearer to the frontier
where he could follow trapping and hunting to better ad-
vantage. One of his hunting advertures will be related
Unmarried men in Farmers Castle: Jonathan Waldo,
Daniel Mayo, Jonathan Baldwin, Cornelius Delano, Joel
Oaks, James Caldwell, Wanton Casey, Stephen Guthrie,
Truman Guthrie, Captain Ingersol, Ezra Phillips, Stephen
Smith, Howell Bull, Samuel Gushing, William and John
Smith, Jonas Davis, Dr. Samuel Barnes.
Within the walls of Farmers Castle there were assem-
bled about two hundred and twenty souls, twenty-eight of
these were heads of families. A number of those enum-
erated as children were males above sixteen years and en-
rolled for military duty. Others were young women from
sixteen to twenty years of age.
Among the inmates of the garrison the name of Chris-
topher Putnam or Kitt as he was familiarly called, must
not be forgotten. He was a colored boy of sixteen or eigh-
teen years of age, who had been the personal or body ser-
vant of General Israel Putnam, during the latter years of
his life, and after his death lived with his son Col. Israel
Putnam. In the fall of 1789, Colonel Putnam came out to
Marietta with his son Aaron Waldo, and brought Kitt with
him. In the Autumn of 1790 the Colonel returned to Con-
necticut for his family. That winter the war broke out and
he did not move them until 1795. Kitt remained at Belpre
with Mr. Putnam in the garrison and was a great favorite
with the boys. He was their chosen leader in all their
athletic sports, for his wonderful activity, and much belov-
ed for his kind and cheerful disposition. When abroad in
the fields cultivating or planting their crops, he was one
of their best hands, either for work or to stand as a sentry.
On these occasions he sometimes took his station in the low-
er branches of a tree where he could have a wider range of
vision and give early notice of the approach of danger.
Under the watchful vigilance of Kitt, all felt safe at their
work. After he was twenty-one years of age and became
a free man he lived with Captain Devoll, on the Muskingum
and assisting in tending the floating mill and clearing the
land on the farm. At the election for delegates, under the
territory, to form a constitution for Ohio, Kitt was a
voter and was probably the first and only black who ever
exercised the elective franchise in Washington County as
after the adoption of that article all colored men were dis-
franchised. (Later they were allowed the franchise.) He
died about the year 1802 much lamented for his many per-
sonal good qualities and industrious habits.
^51^^^ HE crops of the settlers were confined chiefly to
i ^ »| Indian corn, beans, potatoes, turnips, and pump-
jj^ kins, with a little wheat and rye. They also
^^^^ raised hemp and flax for domestic use. Until
the erection of a floating mill in the fall of 1791, a noted era
in the annals of Belpre, their meal was all ground in the
primitive hand mill. But little wheat was raised until after
the close of the war, when mills were built on the creeks.
By the aid of a bolting machine, turned by hand in the gar-
rison, the floating mill furnished the flour for many a noble
loaf of bread, and the crusts of numerous pumpkin pies, the
only fruit afforded for this use in that day.
The winter following the first occupation of Farmers
Castle was one of severe privation in the article of meat.
Late in the fall of 1791, the fat hogs were all collected and
slaughtered in company, and hung up in an outhouse near
the garrison to cool and dry through the night. During
this period it accidentally took fire and burnt up all their
winter stock of meat, to their great loss and disappoint-
ment. A number of other hogs which had been left at
their outlots and fattened in pens were also killed by the
Indians. These were visited by their owners once in three
or four days, and fed with corn left in the field for that
YOUNG MEN SENT TO RED STONE
Under these discouraging circumstances the inhabi-
tants contributed all the money they could gather, which
was but a small sum, and dispatched two active young men
to "Red Stone" to purchase a supply of salt meat and a
few barrels of flour. It was a hazardous journey, not only
in danger from the Indians, who, since St. Glairs defeat,
were still more harrassing to the inhabitants, but also from
the inclemency of the season, it being the first part of De-
cember. They, however reached head waters unmolested,
made their purchases, and were ready to descend the river
when it closed with ice. In the meantime nothing was
heard from the two messengers by the inhabitants and
winter wore away in uncertainty of their fate. Some
thought they had decamped with the money, and others
that they had been killed by the Indians, as the news of
St. Clairs defeat had reached them soon after their depart-
ure ; while the more reflecting were firm in their confidence
of the integrity of the young men and attributed their
silence to a want of opportunity to send them a letter, as
the river was closed, and no regular mail was then estab-
lished. The last of February the ice broke up in the Ohio,
with a flood of water that covered the banks and inundated
the ground on which the garrison was built. Early in
March the young men arrived with a small Kentucky boat
with provisions, and entering the garrison by the upper
gate, moored their ark at the door of the commandant, to
the great joy and relief of the inhabitants. After the dis-
astrous events of the Campaign of 1791, a small guard of
United States troops were stationed at Belpre, usually con-
sisting of a corporal and five men. Their principal duty
was to watch the garrison, while the inhabitants were
abroad in their fields, or at any other employment. They
also served in rotation with the inhabitants in standing
sentry in the watch towers. John L. Shaw, well known in
Marietta, for many years after the war, as an eccentric
character, of great wit and power of mimicry, was corporal
of the guard for a time and a great favorite with the in-
mates of the Castle. He was subsequently a Sergeant in
Captain Haskells Company from Rochester, Mass. During
Wayne's Campaign, while stationed at Fort Recovery he
had a narrow escape from the Indians. In October, 1793,
contrary to orders, he ventured out into the forest near
the fort to gather hickory nuts and had set his musket
against a tree. While busily engaged, with his head near
the ground, he heard a slight rustling in the leaves close
to him. Rising suddenly from his stooping posture, he saw
an Indian within a few yards, his tomahawk raised ready
for a throw, while at the same time he called out in broken
English "Prisoner, Prisoner!" Shaw having no relish for
captivity sprang to his gun, cocked it and faced round just
as the Indian hurled his hatchet. It was aimed at his
head but by a rapid inclination of the body, it missed its
destination and lodged the whole length of the blade in the
muscles of the loin. By the time he had gained an erect
position his enemy was within two steps of him with his
scalping knife. Shaw now fired his gun with such effect
as to kill him on the spot, and its muzzle was so near as to
set his calico hunting shirt on fire. Before he could reload,
another Indian rushed upon him, and he was obliged to
trust his heels in flight. He ran in the direction of the fort,
but a fresh Indian started up before him, and he was ob-
liged to take to the woods. Being in the prime of life and
a very active runner he distanced all his pursuers, leaping
logs and other obstructions which the Indians had to climb
over or go around. After fifteen or twenty minutes of hot
pursuit, which the shrill yells of the Indians served to
quicken, he reached within a short distance of the fort, and
met a party of men coming out to his rescue. They had
heard the shot and at once divined the cause, as no firing
was allowed near the fort, except at the enemy or in self
defense. Shaws life was saved from the rifles of the Sav-
ages only by their desire of taking a prisoner to learn the
intentions of General Wayne.
The first actual demonstration of hostility, after the
inhabitants had taken possession of their new garrison,
was on March 12th by some of the same party who had
attacked the settlement at Waterford, and killed Captain
Rogers at Marietta. The settlers who had evacuated their
farms, of necessity left a part of their cattle and fodder on
the premises ; while those near the castle were visited daily
to feed and milk their cows. On this morning Waldo Put-
nam, a son of Colonel Israel Putnam, and grandson of the
old veteran General, in company with Nathaniel Little,
visited the possession of the former, half a mile below, to
feed and milk the cows. While Waldo was in the posture
of milking. Little, who kept guard, discovered an Indian
leveling his gun at him. He instantly cried out "Indians,
Indians!" Just as the gun cracked Waldo sprang to one
side, and the ball struck the ground under the cow where
he was sitting. They instantly ran for the garrison, when
three Indians sprang out from the edge of the woods and
joined in the pursuit, firing their rifles at the fugutives as
they ran, but happily without effect. They were soon with-
in a short distance of the garrison, when a party of men
rushed out to their rescue and the Indians retreated, after
killing several of the cattle, and among them a yoke of
oxen belonging to Captain Benjamin Miles, which were
noted for their size, being fifteen inches high and large in
proportion. In the subsequent year, while Putnam and
Little were at the same place, very early in the morning, a
small dog that was a few rods in advance gave notice of
danger by barking violently at some hidden object which
his manner led them to suspect must be Indians. Thus
warned they began slowly to retreat, and look carefully
for their enemy. The Indians, three or four in number,
watching them from their covert behind a brush fence,
now jumped from their hiding place and gave chase. The
two white men quickened their speed and crossed a deep
gully which lay in their path on a log, barely in time to
prevent the Indians from cutting off their retreat. They
had examined the ground and expected to take them pris-
oners or kill them at this place. Seeing them past the defile
they now commenced firing at them, but missed their ob-
ject. In the ardor of pursuit they rushed up within a
short distance of the Castle, when Harlow Bull, a fierce
little warrior, who had just arisen from bed, and was only
partly dressed heard the firing and rushed out at the gate
with his rifle and discharged it at the Indians at the same
time returning their war whoop with a yell nearly as ter-
rible as their own. Several of the soldiers soon after ap-
peared in the field, when the Indians retreated to the
forest, greatly disappointed in their expected victims.
After the fugutives were safe within the wall consid-
erable alarm was for time felt for Major Bradford who
had gone out with them but fell a good way behind his
company on account of a lame foot, from a recent wound.
He had nearly reached the gully or defile when the Indians
began the pursuit, and, knowing he could not keep pace
with the others, he jumped down the bank of the river, near
which he was hobbling along, before he was seen by the
Indians, and keeping under shelter he reached the garri-
son unnoticed and came in at one of the water gates. For
a few minutes his family were fully persuaded that he was
killed as his companions could give no account of him.
MURDER OF BENONI HULBERT BY INDIANS.
On September 28th, 1791 Joshua Fleehart and Benomi
Hulbert left the garrison in a canoe to hunt and to visit
their traps near the mouth of the Little Hocking. Fleehart
was a celebrated hunter and trapper. Like many other
backwoodsmen he preferred following the chase for a liv-
ing to that of cultivating the earth. Numbers of them de-
pended on the woods for their clothing as well as their
food. Hulberts family from the oldest to the youngest
were clothed in dressed deer skins. These men had hunt-
ed a good deal together and supplied the garrison with
fresh meat. As they passed the narrows above the mouth
of the creek they were strongly inclined to land and shoot
some turkeys which they heard gobbling on the side of the
hill, a few rods from the river. It was a common practice
with the Indians, when in the vicinity of the whites, to
imitate the note of these birds, to call some of the unwary
settlers within reach of their rifles. After listening a few
moments the nice, discriminating ear of Fleehart satisfied
him that they were made by Indians, Hulbert did not
believe it but was finallv induced not to land. They pro
ceeded on and entered the mouth of the creek, where his
companion landed and traveled along on the edge of the
woods in search of game, while Fleehart paddled the canoe
further up the stream. As they had seen no more signs of
Indians, they concluded that the gobbling this time was
done by the turkeys themselves. In a short time after
Hulbert had left the canoe, the report of a rifle was heard,
which Fleehart at once knew was not that of his companion
and concluded was the shot of an Indian. He landed the
canoe on the opposite shore, and running up the bank
secreted himself in a favorable spot to fire on the Indians
should they approach to examine the creek for the canoe.
He directly heard a little dog belonging to his companion in
fierce contest with the Indians trying to defend the body of
his master; but they soon silenced him with a stroke of a
tomahawk. After watching more than an hour, so near
that he could hear the Indians converse and the groans of
the dying man, but out of his sight and the reach of his
rifle, the Indians being too cautious to approach where they
expected danger, he entered his canoe and returned to the
garrison, which he reached a little after dark and reported
the fate of his companion. The next morning a party of
men, conducted by Fleehart, went down by water, and found
him dead and scalped on the ground where he fell, with the
body of his faithful dog by his side. They brought him
to the Castle where he was buried.
Mr. Hulbert was over sixty years old, and had moved
into the country from Pennsylvania in the fall of 1788 and
lived for a time at Marietta. He served as hunter to a
party of Ohio Company Surveyors in 1789 and was esteem-
ed an honest, worthy man.
He was the first man killed by the Indians in Belpre
after the war broke out.
The death of Mr. Hulbert was a source of additional
terror and dread to the elderly females in the garrison,
whose fears of the Indians kept them in constant alarm,
lest their own husbands or sons should fall a prey to the
rifle or tomahawk of the Savages. They had but little quiet
except in the winter, during which period the Indians rarely
made inroads, or lay watching about the garrison.
But as soon as the Spring began to open and the wild
geese were seen in flocks steering their course to the north,
and the frogs heard peeping in the swamp, they might in-
variably be expected lurking in the vicinity. So constantly
was this the case, that the elder females and mothers with
the more tim.id part of the community, never greeted this
season with the hilarity and welcome so common in all parts
of the world, and so desirable as releasing us from the
gloom and storms of winter. They preferred that season
to any other, as they then felt that their children and them-
selves were in a manner safe from the attack of their
dreaded foe. They therefore regretted its departure, and
viewed the budding of the trees and the opening of the wild
flowers with saddened feelings, as the harbingers of evil;
listening to the song of the blue bird and the martin with
cheerless hearts, as preludes to the war cry of the Savage.
Much of our comfort and happiness depends on association :
and though surrounded with all the heart may crave, or our
tastes desire, yet the constant dread of some expected evil
will destroy all peace of mind, and turn what otherwise
might be joy into sorrow. The barking of the watch dog
at night was another source of terror as it was associated
with the thought that some savage foe was lurking in the
vicinity. The more timid females when thus awakened in
the night would rise upon the elbow and listen with anxious
care for the sound of the war whoop or the report of the
rifle of the watchful sentry; and when they again fell into
a disturbed slumber, the nervous excitement led them to
dream of some murderous deeds or appalling danger. Sev-
eral amusing incidents are related of the alarms in the
garrison from the screams of persons when asleep and
dreaming that they were attacked by Indians. Amid the
peace and quiet of our happy times, we can hardly realize
the mental suffering of that disastrous period.
The following letters written to her father by Mrs.
Mary Bancroft Dana give us an inside view of conditions
during those trying years.
Belpre, June 24th, 1790.
I have an opportunity to send a few lines by General
Putnam which I gladly embrace to inform you that we all
still exist, and have the addition of another son whom I
shall call George. A fine little boy he is. We are as usual,
sometimes sick and sometimes well. All of us at work for
life to get in a way to be comfortable. We got through the
Winter as well as I expected. We are more put to our
trumps than I ever expected for bread. There is no com
nor flour of any kind to be had. We at present live entirely
without it, as many of our neighbors do. There were very
few potatoes raised for want of seed. Our whole family
have not eaten two bushels since we came here. We have
a plenty of corn and potatoes planted so that I expect to
live in a short time, things look promising. Mr. Dana has
worked himself almost to death to get things as forward
as he has ; he is poor and pale, as are all our family, but he
is perfectly satisfied with what he has done and depends
on reaping the good of his labor. I have passed through
many scenes since I left you and am still the same contented
being without fear from the natives. Great God! grant
that I may still be protected and carried through every
changing scene of life with fortitude and behave as becomes
a Christian. I have not received a line from any of my
CAPT. EDMUND AND ELIZABETH ATHERTON BANCROFT.
BORN NOVEMBER 14. 1752. PEPPERELL. MASS.
CART. WILLIAM DANA.
NOVEMBER 28, 1770.
DIED DECEMBER 31. 1831.
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KI.I'KK. OHIO, \VIIi:iiK -HK Sl-KNI Till-: KKMAl.V-
IX IHK YKAl; I 71
SHK MUVKII TO
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friends but Mr. Atherton and Captain Blanchard. Mr.
Atherton informed me that sister Sparrow had lost her
little girl. What a distribution of Providence, there was
enough to feed and clothe, still they must be afflicted. In-
finite Wisdom no doubt thought it best. What ever is, is
right, but we all mourn the loss of so sweet a child. My
blood thrilled in my veins and though at so great a distance
have very sympathetic feelings for the parents. I wish
you would write me the manner of her death, and how you
all are and everything that concerns my family. It would
seem like a feast. Be assured now I have begun to write
it seems like a visit. The hurry in which I have lived has
kept me from almost every duty ; and care for the safety
of my own in the new world has kept me continually busy ;
there seemed not a moment to spare. The attention of a
family that has but one cow and that wants everything is
great and but one woman to do the whole, but I have not
lost my spirits. It is now eleven at night, all are at rest
and it rains very fast, and has for this thirty hours as fast
as I ever knew it. The river rises and falls at an amazing
rate. Even^thing grows as fast as we could wish but I
fear we will still have to grind in a hand mill. As it
grows late and our house is very wet must bid you adieu.
Your affectionate daughter,
The next letter was written two years later and indi-
cates the changed conditions.
September 8, 1792.
I once more give myself the satisfaction to inform you
and all my friends that we are all alive and in as good
health as it is common for us to be. Various have been
the scenes I have passed through since I left your peaceful
dwelling. We lived in peace and safety as we thought for
one year without a guard for selves or family.
At length an army was sent out against that injured
nation for cruelties they were often committing upon per-
sons or families.
A year ago last February three small settlements mov-
ed together. A garrison was created and block houses
built. We continued there with two families in every
house, one above and one below, three miles from our usual
dwelling. We continued there nine months but before the
defeat of the army we returned and lived in our own house
In the course of the winter Mr. Dana built a decent
block house nigh a quarter of a mile from our other. I
now live in a snug garrison where there are seven families.f
Nobody pretends to walk any distance without an instru-
ment of death on his shoulder, continually looking for dan-
ger and trial. All necessary business is performed with
alacrity and fortitude. Everything around us is flourish-
ing and we are supported and prospered beyond our expec-
tations. This letter I send by Mrs. Battelle who is about
to set out for Boston. She has been in this country nigh
four years and is now going to visit her friends. Me
thinks it would add to my happiness to hear from every
branch of my family; their situation, their prosperities,
their adversities, although at so great a distance I should
share every adversity, and partake of the prosperity. Not a
single line have I received from any of you since I left you,
and this wretched writing I hope will put you in mind, or
one of my brothers, to write the first opportunity. I must
conclude with sending duty and respects and love for my-
self and family.
Your dutiful daughter,
These letters reveal many of the privations of settlers
in a new country with no public means of travel, and no
mails, the only means of transporting letters being in the
knapsacks of travelers, and sometimes years passed before
they heard from friends in the old home.
Mrs. Dana was daughter of Capt. Edmond Bancroft,
of Pepperell, Mass. She brought up a family of eleven
children and did her full share in promoting the welfare
The pioneer wives and mothers deserve more honors
than we can express for the preseverance and heroism with
which they endured the privations of those early years.
fDoubtlesB Stone's Garrison.
MUTUAL INSURANCE SOCIETY
»t *t •?
^^ \ OON after the commencement of the war, the
6 J& 5J inhabitants who owned cattle and hogs, formed
themselves into a Society for the mutual in-
surance of each others stock against the depre-
dations of the Indians; and also for carrying on their agri-
cultural labors. Each one was accountable for any loss in
proportion to the amount he owned. For this purpose the
animals were appraised at their cash value, and recorded
in a book by the Secretary. Quite a number of cattle and
hogs were killed or driven away by the Savages during
the war, the value of which was directly made up to the
owners by the company. Horses they did not attempt to
keep during the war as they were sure to be stolen, and
were a means of inviting the Indians into the settlement.
It was a wise and salutary arrangement and found to be
very useful in eaualizing the burdens and losses of a com-
munity who had located themselves in a wilderness and
had to encounter not only the toil and privations of re-
claiming their new lands from the forest but also to contend
with one of the most subtle, revengeful, and wily enemies
the world ever produced. The leading men in Belpre had
been acquainted during their service in the Army, at a
time which tried mens souls, and they felt a degree of kind-
ness and interest in each others welfare not to be found in
any other community. Their mutual dangers and suffering
bound them still closer together in the bonds of friendship.
There was also an amount of intelligence and good sense
rarely found in so small a number, as will be more dis-
tinctly shown in the biographical sketches (See Chapter
Early in the summer of 1791, the settlers, being disap-
pointed by the Indian war in completing the mill, com-
menced on the Little Hocking, concluded to build what
might be called a floating mill. This could be anchored out
in the river and be safe from destruction by Indians.
The labor of grinding corn on a hand mill for a community
of more than one hundred and fifty persons was a task
only known to those who have tried it.
Griffin Greene, Esq., one of the Ohio Company direc-
tors, and also an associate in Farmers Castle, had traveled
in France and Holland three or four years before, and in
the latter country had seen a mill erected on boats and the
machinery moved by the current. He mentioned the fact
to Captain Jonathan Devoll, an ingenious machanic, of ar-
dent temperament and resolute to accomnlish anything that
would benefit his fellow men; and although Mr. Greene
had not inspected the foreign mill so as to give any definite
description, yet the bare suggestion of such a fact was suffi-
cient for Captain Devoll, whose mechanical turn of mind
immediately devised the machinery required to put it in
operation. A company was formed and the stock divided
into twelve shares of which Captain Devoll took one- third,
and Mr. Greene about one-fourth; the rest was divided
among five other persons. When finished it cost fifty-one
pounds eight shillings, Massachusetts currency, according
to the old bill of expenditures. The mill was erected on two
boats one of them five and the other ten feet wide and for-
ty-five feet long. The smaller one was made of the trunk of
a hollow Sycamore tree and the larger of timber and plank
like a flat boat. They were placed eight feet apart and
fastened firmly together by beams, running across the boats.
The smaller on the outside supported one end of the
shaft of the water wheel and the larger the other; in this
was placed the mill stones and running gear, covered with
a tight frame building for the protection of the grain and
meal and the comfort of the miller. The space between
the boats was covered with planks forming a deck fore
and aft of the water wheel. It was turned by the natural
current of the water, and was put in motion or checked
by pulling up or setting down a set of boards, similar to
a gate in front of the wheel. It could grind from twenty-
five to fifty bushels of grain in twenty-four hours, accord-
ing to the strength of the current. The larger boat was
fastened by a chain cable to an anchor made of timbers and
filled with stones, and the smaller one by a grape vine
to the same anchor. The mill was placed in a rapid por-
tion of the Ohio a few rods from the shore and in sight
of the Castle. The current here was strong, and the posi-
tion safeguarded from Indians. With the aid of a bolting
cloth in the garrison, turned by hand, very good flour was
made, when they had any wheat. The day of the comple-
tion was a kind of jubilee to the inmates of the Castle, as it
relieved them from the slavish labor of the handmill,
V'.hich liteially fulfilled the prediction to Adam: "In the
sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat thy bread." The float-
ing mill was a great relief, and was visited by all the
settlers on both sides of the Ohio for a distance of twenty
miles, in their canoes, the only mode of transportation at
a period when there were neither roads nor bridges in the
MURDERS AT NEWBURY.
This settlement was begun at the same time with that
at Belpre, considered a part of it and called the "Lower
Settlement." The location was six miles below Farmers
Castle and was commenced by about fourteen associates.
On the breaking out of hostilities, Jan. 2nd, 1791, they left
their new clearing and joined the garrison at Belpre. Find-
ing it out of their power to cultivate their land at so great
a distance, early in the Spring of 1792, the men returned
and built two blockhouses, with a few cabins and enclosed
the whole with a Stockade on the bank of the river oppo-
site a spot called "Newbury bar," and moved back their
effects. There were now four or five families and eight
single men ; in all about twenty souls. A man by the name
of Brown, from headwaters, with his wife and four chil-
dren, had recently joined the settlement, and commenced
clearing a piece of land about eighty rods from the garri-
son. On Sunday, March 15th, a mild and pleasant day,
his wife went out to see him set some fruit trees they had
brought with them. Not apprehending any danger from
the Indians so near the garrison, she took along with her
the children, carrying an infant in her arms, and leading
another child of two years old by the hand, while Persis
Dunham, a girl of fourteen, the daughter of widow Dun-
ham, and a great favorite with the settlers, for her pleasant
disposition, kind consiliating manners, and beautiful per-
son, led another child, and the fourth loitered some dis-
tance behind them. When they arrived within a short
space of Mr, Brown, two Indians sprang out from their con-
cealment; one seized Mrs. Brown by the arm and sunk
his tomahawk in her head. As she fell he aimed a blow at
the infant which cut a large gash in the side of the fore-
head and nearly severed one ear. He next dashed his hat-
chet into the head of the child she was leading, and with
his knife tore off their scalps. The other Indian fell upon
Persis and the remaining child, sinking his tomahawk
into their heads and tearing off their scalps with the re-
morseless fury of a demon.
The men in the garrison, hearing their screams,
rushed out to their rescue; but only saved the little fellow
who loitered behind, and commenced firing at the Indians.
Brown, whom they had not discovered before, now came
in sight but being without arms could render no assist-
ance. The Indians immediately gave chase to him but he
escaped and reached the garrison. As the men were not
familiar with Indian warfare, no effective pursuit was
made; whereas had there been several backswoodsmen
among them they would doubtless have been followed and
killed. When the bodies of the slain were removed to the
garrison, the poor little infant was found in a state of
insensibility lying by the side of its dead mother. It finally
revived and was nursed with great tenderness by the fe-
males at Farmers Castle, where the child was soon after
brought, whose deepest sympathies were awakened by its
motherless condition and ghastly wound which had nearly
deprived it of all its blood. By great care it was restored
to health, and the father, with his two remaining children,
returned to his relations. Newbury was again deserted
and so remained until the end of the war.
In the summer of 1792, in addition to their other cal-
amities, the inhabitants of Farmers Castle were assailed
with Scarlet Fever and putrid sore throat. It commenced
without any known cause or exposure to contagion. The
disease was sudden and violent in its attacks and very
fatal, some of the children died within twenty-four hours.
It was of a very putrid type and the seat of the disease
confined chiefly to the fauces and throat, many having no
scarlet effloressence on the skin. It continued for several
weeks and overwhelmed this little isolated community with
consternation and grief. Medicine seemed to have little
or no effect in arresting the progress or checking the fatal
termination of the disease.
It gradually subsided after carrying off ten or fifteen
children. Like many other epidemics it was most fatal in
the first few days of its appearance. It was confined to
Belpre, while Marietta and the other settlements escaped
its ravages. In the Summer and autumn the inhabitants
were more or less affected with intermittent fevers of a
mild type, to the production of which, no doubt, the swancip
back of the garrison afforded a large share of the malaria.
Bilious fever also occasionally attacked the new settlers
but the disease was seldom fatal and gave way to simple
No people ever paid more attention to the education of
their children than the descendants of the Puritans. One
of the first things done by the settlers of Belpre, after they
had erected their own log dwellings, was to make provision
for teaching their children the rudiments of learning, read-
ing writing and arithmetic.
Bathsheba Rouse, the daughter of John Rouse, one
of the emigrants from near New Bedford Mass. was em-
ployed in the summer of 1789 to teach the small children,
and for several subsequent summers she taught a school
in Farmers Castle. She is believed to have been the first
female who taught a school within the present bounds
of Ohio. During the winter months a male teacher was
employed for the larger boys and young women. Daniel
Mayo was the first male teacher in Farmers Castle. He
came, a young man from Boston, with the family of Col.
Battelle, in the Fall of 1788, and w^as a graduate of Cam-
bridge University. The school was held in a large room
of Col. Battelle's block house. He was a teacher for sev-
eral winters, and during the Summer worked at clearing
and cultivating his lot of land. He married a daughter of
Col. Israel Putnam and after the war settled in Newport,
Ky. Jonathan Baldwin, another educated man, also taught
school a part of the time of their confinement in the garri-
son. These schools had no public funds as at this day to
aid them but were supported from the hard earnings of
the honest pioneers. (They received a small sum from the
The larger portion of the time during the war relig-
ious services were held on the Sabbath in Farmers Castle
by Col. E. L. Battelle. The people assembled in the large
lower room in his block house which was provided with
seats. Notice was given of the time to commence the exer-
cises by his son Ebenezer, then a lad of fifteen or sixteen
years, and a drummer to the garrison, marching up and
down beating the drum. The inmates understood the call
as readily from the "tattoo" as from the sound of a bell,
and they attended very regularly. The meeting was open-
ed with prayer, sometimes read from the church service
and sometimes delivered extempore, followed by singing, at
which all the New Englanders were more or less proficient.
A sermon was then read from the writings of some stand-
ard divine and the meeting closed with singing and prayer.
Occasionally, during the war. Rev. Daniel Story visited
them and preached on the Sabbath, but these calls were
rare, owing to the danger from Indians of intercourse be-
tween the settlements. After the war his attendance was
more regular, about once a month ; on the other three Sun-
days religious services were continued by Col. Battelle, at
a house erected on the Bluff, which accommodated both
the upper and middle settlements until the time when they
were able to build another and more convenient place of
worship. The holy day was generally observed and hon-
ored by the inhabitants but not with the strictness common
in New England. Very few of the leading men of that
day were members of any church ; yet all supported religion,
morality and good order.
OF THE SPIES AND RANGERS.
To the vigilance and courage of the men engaged as
spies and rangers may in part be attributed the fact, that
so few losses were sustained by the inhabitants during the
Indian war, compared with that of most other border settle-
ments. This species of troops were early employed by the
Ohio Company at the suggestion of Gen. Rufus Putnam,
who had been familiar with their use in the old French
war and subsequently taken into the service of the United
States. The duty of the spies was to scour the country
every day the distance of eight or ten miles around the
garrisons, making a circuit of twenty-five or thirty miles
and accomplishing their task generally by three or four
o'clock in the afternoon. They left the garrison at day-
light, always two in company, traveling rapidly over the
hills and stopping to examine more carefully such places
as it was probable the Indians would pass over, in making
their approach to the settlements, guided in this respect by
the direction of the ridges or the water courses. The
circuit in Belpre was over on to the waters of the Little
Hocking river, and up the easterly branches across to the
Ohio, striking this stream a few miles above the entrance
of the Little Kanawha and thence by the deserted farms
down to the garrison. The spies from Waterford made a
traverse that intersected or joined their trail, forming a
cordon across which the enemy could rarely pass without
their signs being discovered. While they were abroad the
inhabitants, at work in their fields or traveling between
stations, felt a degree of safety they could not have done,
but for their confidence in the sagacity and faithfulness of
the spies. Their dress in summer was similar to that worn
by Indians. Their pay was five shillings, or eighty cents a
day as appears from the old pay roll. They were amen-
able to the commanding officer of the station but under the
direct control of Col. Sproat, who was employed by the
United States. They had signs known to themselves, by
which they recognized a ranger from an Indian even when
painted like one.
The men who served at Belpre, but not all at the same
time, two or three being a proportion for each garrison,
were Cornelius Delano, Joel Oaks, Benjamin Patterson,
Joshua Fleehart, George Kerr, John Shepherd, and James
Caldwell. The first two were New England men; the
other five had been brought up on the frontiers.
In September, 1793, the small pox was introduced
within Farmers Castle, whose walls could not protect them
from this insidious foe, by Benjamin Patterson one of the
spies. He was at Marietta where it prevailed and think-
ing himself exposed to the contagion was inoculated by Dr.
Barnes who was then there, and engaged him to inoculate
the rest of the family.
Great was the consternation of the married females
and children when the news of the Small Pox being among
them was known. Their sufferings and losses from the
Scarletina were still fresh in their minds, and the dreaded
name of Small Pox seemed like the final sealing of their
calamities. Few, if any of the inhabitants, except the
officers and soldiers of the army had gone through with
the disease, and as there was no chance of escaping it, a
meeting of the inhabitants was directly called. It was voted
to send for Dr. True to come down and inoculate them in
their own dwellings. The Doctor accepted the invitation
and Farmers Castle became one great hospital, containing
beneath each roof more or less persons sick with this loath-
some disease. The treatment of Dr. True was very suc-
cessful, and out of nearly one hundred patients not one
Of those under the care of Dr. Barnes in Major Good-
ales garrison, a colony which moved out of Farmers Castle
in the spring, two or three died; among them was a child
of Mr. Patterson. The cause of its fatality was the failure
of those first inoculated to take the disease, probably from
deteriorated matter ; and several took it in the natural way,
so that on the whole they got through with this pest very
jin-rv^'Hi ANY families who had been brought up on the
I^ iW % frontiers depended entirely on the skins of
"^ ijk' animals for clothing. Whole households from
:^6^1 the oldest to the youngest were clad in dress-
ed deer skins. Some of them possessed great skill
in making them soft and pliable, equal to the finest
cloth. Before the introduction of sheep, buckskin panta-
loons were in general use by all the farmers boys. The
New England settlers with most of the frontier inhabitants
made cloth of various materials. For the first two or three
years, hemp was raised in small quantities; water rotted
and made into cloth by the industrious females of the garri-
son. Flax was also raised. "In the year 1790, Captain
Dana sowed a piece of flax, pulled it early in June, while
it was in the blossom, water rotted it in a swamp near the
river, had it dressed out and spun in the family, and woven
into substantial cloth by his son William. It was made into
shirts and trousers for the boys and worn at the celebration
of July 4th in Belpre, showing an activity and dispatch
which few in this day can equal. "f Nearly every family had
their spinning wheels, and looms. With these the girls
and young women used to congregate in companies of ten
or fifteen in the spacious rooms of the block houses and
cheer each other in their labors with song and sprightly
conversation. They used also to stir up their ambition
with trial of skill in spinning the largest number of skeins
in a given time. For the first few years cotton was raised
in small quantities and manufactured into stockings or
cloth, with hemp or flax. The rich virgin soil of the bot-
toms, and the long warm summers of this climate caused
it to flourish and be nearly as productive as it now is in
Tennessee. After a few years the early frosts of Autumn
destroyed much of it before the floss was formed and
taught them that this was not the proper climate for cotton.
|M»DU8cript Notei of Judge Barker.
Capt. Devoll invented a machine with rollers which sep-
arated the seeds from the cotton in quite an admirable
manner but not quite equal to Whitney's celebrated gin.
He also constructed a mill with wooden rollers, worked by
oxen, for crushing the green stalks of Indian corn, from
the juice of which a rich syrup or molasses was made
in considerable quantities. When carefully purified it an-
swered well for sweetening puddings, pies, etc.
About the year 1800 Dr. Spencer of Vienna, Wood
County, Va. raised in his garden cotton the stems of which
were eight or ten feet high and produced forty pounds of
long, fine cotton in the seed on three square rods of ground.
It was planted early in April by a colored woman who had
been familiar with the culture in the South. It must be
recollected that cotton at that period was worth forty or
fifty cents a pound, and was just coming into cultivation as
a staple in the Southern states. Rice, of the variety called
upland, was also raised in small quantities, during the
early years of the settlements; showing that this climate
could produce several articles, now brought from abroad,
should the necessities of the people ever require it. Silk
worms were raised by the females in Gen. Putnams family
and the cocoons reeled and spun into strong sewing thread
as early as 1800. They were fed on the leaves of the white
mulberry, raised from seeds brought from Conn. Sheep
were not introduced until after the war, in 1797 or 98 ; the
first came from Pennsylvania. For more than twenty
years nearly all the clothes worn in the families of farmers,
and many in town for every day dresses, were made in the
houses of the wearers by their wives and daughters.
STONES AND GOODALES FORTS OCCUPIED.
Early in the Spring of 1793 the large community in
Farmer's Castle found themselves so much straitened for
room and withal it was so inconvenient cultivating their
lands at such a distance from their dwellings that they con-
cluded to divide their forces and erect two additional gar-
risons, to be occupied by the families whose lands lay in
the vicinity. Accordingly one containing two block houses
was built a mile below, inclosed with palisades and called
"Goodale's garrison," and one on the bank of the Ohio two
miles above, called "Stone's garrison," and the families
moved into them that Spring. The upper one contained
four block houses, a school house, and several log cabins
accommodating about ten families, and the lower one six.
Wayne's army was now beginning to assemble on the fron-
tier, and the inhabitants were cheered by the numerous
boats, almost daily descending the river with provisions
and detachments of troops, whose martial music enlivened
the solitary banks of the Ohio, and removed their apprehen-
tions of a general attack from the Indians, so depressing
after the defeat of Gen. St. Clair the previous year.
KIDNAPPING OF MAJ. GOODALE.
On March 1st, 1793, the colony met with the most
serious loss it had yet felt from their Indian enemies, in
the kidnapping and ultimate death of Maj. Goodale. On
that day he was at work in a new clearing on his farm
distant about forty rods from the garrison, hauling rail
timber with a yoke of oxen from the edge of the woods
bordering the new field. It lay back of the first bottom in
open view of the station. An Irish man, John Magee was
at work grubbing or digging the roots of the bushes and
small saplings on the slope of the plain as it descends to
the bottom, but out of sight of Ma.j. Goodale. The Indians
made so little noise in their assault that John did not
hear them. The first notice of the disaster was the view
of the oxen seen from the garrison, standing quietly in
the field with no one near them. After an hour or more
they were observed still in the same place, when suspicion
arose that some disaster had happened to Mr. Goodale.
One of the men was called and sent up to learn what had
happened. John was still busy at his work unconscious
of any alarm. In the edge of the woods there was a thin
layer of snow, on which he soon saw moccasin tracks. It
was now evident that Indians had been there and had taken
Maj. Goodale prisoner, as no blood was seen on the ground.
They followed the trail some distance but soon lost it. The
next day a party of rangers went out, but returned after
a fruitless search. The river was at that time nearly at
full banks and less danger was apprehended on that ac-
count. It was also early in the season for Indians to ap-
proach the settlements. The uncertainty of his condition
left room for the imagination to fancy everything horrible
in his fate ; more terrible to bear than the actual knowledge
of his death. The distress of Mrs. Goodale and the chil-
dren was great. His loss threw a deep gloom over the
whole community, as no man was more highly valued;
neither was there any one whose counsels and influence
were equally prized by the settlement. He was in fact the
life and soul of this isolated community and his loss left
a vacancy that no other man could fill. His memory was
for many years fresh and green in the hearts of his con-
temporary pioneers. At the treaty of 1795, when the
captives were given up by the Indians some intelligence
was obtained of nearly all the persons from this part of
Ohio, but none of the fate of Maj. Goodale. About the
year 1799 Col. Forrest Meeker, afterwards a citizen of Dela-
ware County, and well acquainted with the family of Maj.
Goodale, and the circumstances of his capture, when at
Detroit on business fell in Company with three Indians,
who related to him the particulars of their taking a man
prisoner in Belpre in the Spring of 1793. Their descrip-
tion of his personal appearance left no doubt in the mind
of Col. Meeker that it was Maj. Goodale. They stated that
a party of eight Indians were watching the settlement for
mischief; and as they lay concealed on the side of the hill
back of the plain, they heard a man driving or "talking"
to his oxen. After carefully examining his movements
they saw him leave his work and go to the garrison, in the
middle of the day. Knowing that he would soon return
they secreted themselves in the edge of the woods, and
while he was occupied with his work, sprang out and seized
upon him before he was aware of their presence, or could
make any defense, and threatened him with death if he
made a noise or resisted. After securing him with thongs,
they commenced a hasty retreat, intending to take him to
Detroit and get a large ransom. Some where on the Miami
or at Sandusky, he fell sick and could not travel, and that
he finally died. A Mrs. Whittaker, the wife of a man who
had a store and traded with the Indians at Sandusky, has
since related the same account. That the Indians left him
at her house where he died of a disease like pleurisy with-
out having received any very ill usage from his captors,
other than the means necessary to prevent his escape. This
probably is a correct account of his fate ; and although his
death was a melancholy one, among strangers, and far
away from the sympathy and care of his friends, yet it was
a relief to know that he did not perish at the stake or by the
tomahawk of savages.
AMUSEMENTS IN FARMER'S CASTLE
,URING the long and tedious confinement of the
inhabitants to their garrison, various plans
^ ^ were sought to make the time pass as happily
^^^^1 as circumstances would allow. The sports of
the boys and young men consisted of games of ball, foot
races, wrestling, and leaping, at all of which the larger
number were adepts. Foot races were especially encour-
aged that it might give them an advantage in their con-
tacts with the Indians, those of a more refined character,
in which both sexes could participate, consisted chiefly of
dancing. Parties of young people from Campus Martius
and Fort Harmar used to come down as often as four or
five times a year and join in these festivities. These visits
were made by water, in a barge or large row boat, attended
by a guard of soldiers from the fort. They brought Musi-
cians who were attached to the military service. A player
on the violin from Gallipolis named Vansan who was one
of the French emigrants, celebrated for his musical talents
always accompanied the young men from that place in their
visits to Farmers Castle where they were very welcome
visitors. It is true they did not abound in nice cakes and
rich wines ; but they treated their guests with the best they
had, while the hilarity and cheerful looks of the company
made amends for all besides. The garrison at Belpre con-
tained about twenty young females in the prime of life, with
fine persons, agreeable manners, and cultivated minds. A
dangerous recreation of the younger girls was to steal out
of the Castle in the pleasant moonlight summer evenings,
and, taking possession of a canoe, push it silently up the
shore of the Ohio for a mile or more ; then paddle out into
the middle of the stream, and float gently down with the
current. Some favorite singer then struck up a lively song
in which they all joined, their voices making sweet melody
on the calm waters of the "Belle riviere," greatly to the
rielidit of the young men and guards on the watch towers,
but much to the alarm of their mothers who were always
in fear of the Indians.
Promenading up and down the smooth broad avenue
between the rows of block houses, about eighty rods in
extent, was another favorite summer evening recreation
for the young people, while the elder ones gathered in cheer-
ful groups at each others dwellings, to chat on their own
affairs, or the news of the day, collected as it might be
from the passing boats or the rangers in their visits to other
garrisons. The first newspaper printed in Marietta was
started in 1802. Previous to that time they had only stray
copies which might reach some families from eastern
fnends. The first mail route was established in 1794.
Early in the Autumn parties of young people visited the
Jj^lnrir!. where several families resided, for the purpose of
gathering grapes, paw paws, mints, &c.
July 4th was regularly celebrated in a bowery within
the walls of the earrison. where the old officers and soldiers
of the Revolution again recounted the trials and hardships
of that eventful period, over a flowino- bowl of whisky
punch, while the report of their noisv little howitzer awoke
the echoes among the neighboring hills at the announce-
ment of each patriotic toast. A celebration of this glorious
day without gun powder or punch would at that time have
been called a burlesque.
During these years Grifl^n Greene, Esq., a man of srreat
inventive genius, conceived a machine which he honed
would possess the power of perpetual motion. Cantain
Devoll constructed a machine after his model but it shared
the fate of all perpetual motion machines.
A WINTER HUNT.
Joshua Fleehart, already mentioned in this narative,
was bom in Pennsylvania and from his boyhood had been
brought up in the woods, knowing as little of letters as
the red man of the forest, whom he greatly resembled in
habits and instincts. He was well kno^vn as a hunter and
socurod much meat for the dwellers in Farmers Castle.
Having become tired of the sameness of e^arrison life
and panting for freedom among woods and hills, to which
he had always been accustomed, late in the fall of 1793,
he took his canoe, rifle, traps, and blanket, with no one to
accompany him ; leaving even his faithful dog in the garri-
son with his family. As he was going into a dangerous
neighborhood he was fearful lest the voice of his dog might
entrap him. He pushed his canoe up the Scioto a distance
of 15 or 20 miles into a country amidst the best hunting
ground for bears and beavers, where no white man had
dared to venture. These two animals were the main ob-
jects of his pursuit. The hills of brush creek were said to
abound in bears and the small streams that fell into the
Scioto were well suited to haunts of beaver.
The spot chosen for his winter residence was within
25 or 30 miles of the Indian town of Chillicothe but as
they seldom go out for a hunt in winter he had little to fear
from their interruption. For 10 or 12 weeks he trapped
and hunted in this solitary region unmolested, luxuriating
on the roasted tails of beavers and drinking the oil of bears,
an article of diet which is considered by the children of the
forest as giving health to the body with activity to the
limbs. His success equalled his most sanguine expecta-
tions, and the winter passed away so quickly and pleasant-
ly that he was hardly aware of its progress. About the
middle of February he began to make up the peltry he had
captured into packages and to load his canoe with the pro-
ceeds of his winters hunt, which for safety he had hidden
in the willows a few miles below the little bark hut in
which he had lived.
The day before that which he had fixed for his de-
parture, as he was returning to his camp just at evening
Fleehart's acute ear caught the report of a rifle in the di-
rection of the Indian town, but at so remote a distance
that none but a backwoodsman could have distinguished the
sound. This hastened his preparation for decamping,
nevertheless he slept quietly, but rose the following morn-
ing before dawn ; cooked and ate his last meal in the little
hut to which he had become quite attached. The sun had
just risen and while he was sitting on the trunk of a fallen
tree examining the priming and lock of his gun, casting a
casual look up the river, he saw an Indian slowly approach-
ing with his eyes intently fixed on the ground, carefully
inspecting the tracks of his moccasins left in the soft earth
as he returned to his hut the evening before. He instantly
cocked his gun, stepped behind a tree, and waited until the
Indian came within range. He then fired and the Indian
fell. Rushing from his cover on his prostrate foe he was
about to apply the scalping knife ; but, seeing the shining
silver broaches and broad band on his arms he fell to cut-
ting them loose, and tucking them into the bosom of his
hunting shirt. While busily occupied in securing these
sDoils. the sharn crack of a rifle and the passage of a ball
through the bullet pouch at his side caused him to discover
throe Indians within one hundred yards of him. He seized
his rifle and took to flight. The others as he ran fired at
him without eff'ect. The chase was continued for several
miles by two of the Indians who were swift runners. He
often stopped and treed, hoping to get a shot and kill one or
disable him and then overcome the other at his leisure.
His pursuers also treed and by flanking to the right and
left forced him to uncover or stand the chance of a shot.
He finally concluded to leave the level ground on which the
contest had thus far been held and take to the hicrh hills,
which lie back of the bottoms. His strong muscular limbs
here gave him the advantage as he could ascend a steep hill
more rapidly than his pursuers. The Indians seeing they
could not overtake him, as a last effort, stopned and fired,
one of thpir balls cut away the handle of his hunting knife
jerking it so violently against his side that for a moment
he thought he was wounded. He immediately returned the
fire, and they, with a yell of vexation, gave up the chase.
Fleehart made a circuit among the hills and just at dark
came to the river near where his canoe was hidden. Spring-
ing lightly on board he naddled down stream. Being
greatly fatigued by the efforts of the day he lay down in
the canoe, and when he awoke in the morning was just en-
tering the Ohio river. Crossing over to the southern shore
he, in a few days, pushed his canoe un to Farmers Castle
without further adventure where he showed the rich pack-
ages of peltry as the proceeds of his winters hunt and dis-
played the brilliant silver ornaments as trophies of his
victory, to the envy and admiration of his less venturesome
companions. It was not uncommon for western hunters to
spend months alone in the woods although they usually pre-
ferred one or two comrades.
Among the privations and trials of the early settlers
was the deamess and scarcity of marine salt. From 1788
until some years after the close of the war, their salt was
all brought over the mountains on pack horses at an ex-
pense to the consumer of from six to ten dollars a bushel.
This great scarcity was a serious draw back to the prosper-
ity of the country and a source of annoyance to the people.
The domestic animal suffered from its want as well as man ;
and when ranging in the woods visited the clay banks that
sometimes contained saline particles, licking and gnawing
them into large holes.
The "deer licks," so common at that day, were seldom
anything more than holes made in the clay by wild animals
and filled with water sometimes of a brackish quality.
Nearly all the salines since worked were first pointed out
to man by the deers and buffaloes.
DISCOVERY OF A SALT SPRING.
In the Autumn of 1794, Griffin Greene, Esq., whose fer-
tile mind was always full of projects for the benefit of the
country had heard from the report of some white man who
had been a prisoner with the Indians, that they had made
salt from a spring on a tributary branch of the Scioto river,
afterwards known as Salt Creek. He described the spot as
somewhere near the present location of the town of Jack-
son; and although it was in the midst of the Indian war,
and in the vicinity of their towns, so great was the anxiety
to ascertain its truth that a company was formed to visit
and search out the spring. Mr. Greene associated with
himself in the enterprise Maj. Robert Bradford and Joel
Oakes ; he paying one-half of the expense, and his two part-
ners the other half. A large Pirogue was provided, with
provisions for twelve men for ten or twelve days, the
period supposed necessary to accomplish the journey.
They hired some of the most experienced woodsmen
and hunters from Belleville as guides and guards.
Among them were Peter Anderson, Joshua Dewey, and
John Coleman, all noted for their bravery and knowl-
edge of the woods. They left Farmers Castle in the fail
of the year, at a time when the water in the Ohio was quite
high ; accompanied with the good wishes of their neighbors
for their success, but dampened with many fears and evil
forebodings from the dangers that attended the enterprise.
At the mouth of Leading Creek the adventurers landed
their boat, secreting it among the trees and bushes as well
as they could. This point is about forty miles from Jack-
son, and probably about thirty miles from the heads of the
south branch of Salt Creek ; but of the actual distance they
were ignorant, only knowing that it lay some distance be-
yond the west boundary of the Ohio Company's lands. Af-
ter several days travel and making examinations they fell
upon a stream which led in the right direction and, fol-
lowing it down, soon met with paths leading as they sup-
posed to the spring. They soon discovered where fires
had recently been made, and searching carefully in the bed
of the creek, found a hole which had been scooped out by
the Indians in the sand rock and filled with brackish water.
A small brass kettle which they had with them for cooking
was filled with the water and, boiled away, made about a
table spoonfull of salt. Although the water was weak, yet
it proved that they had discovered the long talked of and
desirable fountain whose waters afforded the precious ar-
ticle of salt. It was like the discovery of the philosopher's
stone to the alchemist, for every ounce of it could be turn-
ed into gold. After spending one night and part of a day
at the place, they commenced their homeward journey, well
pleased with the success of their search. They dare not
remain longer and make a larger quantity, lest some strag-
gling Indian should discover them and give notice to the
village at Chillicothe, distant about twenty-five miles. They
were too numerous to fear any small hunting party.
A NIGHT ALARM.
Their return to the mouth of Leading Creek was ac-
complished in a much shorter period than in going out.
The night after they left Salt Creek, while all were buried
in sleep by their camp fire, they were awakened by a terri-
fic scream. All sprang to their feet, seized their arms, and
extinguished the fire, expecting every moment to hear the
shot and the shout of the Savages. After listening a mo-
ment or two, and no enemy appearing, they began to in-
quire into the cause of the alarm, and found that one of
the party had been seized with the cramp in his sleep and
made this terrible outcry. They were rejoiced that it
was from no worse a cause, and lay down quietly until
morning. When they reached the mouth of Leading
Creek the water had fallen ten or twelve feet, and left the
pirogue high and dry on land. It required half an hour or
more to launch the boat and get under way.
By the time they had reached the middle of the Ohio,
proposing to cross over and go up on the Virginia shore, a
party of Indians appeared on the bank, at the spot they had
just left, in hot pursuit. Fortunately they were out of
reach of their shot. The adventurers felt very thankful
for their providential escape, for had their pursuers reach-
ed the river a few minutes sooner, when all hands were en-
gaged in getting the boat into the water, they would in all
probability have fallen a sacrifice to the Indians. At the
treaty two years later, an Indian, who was with the pursu-
ing party, told Col. Lewis of Kanawha, that the whites had
been discovered while at the creek boiling the salt, by two
Indians, who were then on a hunt, and had seen the smoke
of their fire. They were too weak to attack so large a
party, and hastened back to their town for assistance.
Twenty Indians immediately went in pursuit, but greatly
to their disappointment, did not overtake them until they
had left the shore and were out of danger. They reached
the garrison unmolested and relieved the fears of their
families as to their safety, it having been in fact a very
So desirable a discovery was considered to be very
valuable and Maj. Green, on a visit he made to Philadelphia
soon after, sold the right of his discovery, for the benefit of
himself and partners to John Nicholson, a merchant of that
city for fifteen hundred dollars, who was to come into pos-
session of the Spring by purchasing land on which it was
situated, as soon as it was surveyed by the United States
and offered for sale. But the lands were considered so
valuable that they were never offered for sale, but were
ceded with othr Salt Springs, to the State of Ohio when it
became a member of the Confederacy in 1802, as one of
the most precious acquisitions and under an express stip-
ulation that the state should never sell them or lease them
for more than ten years at any one time. Small quan-
tities of salt were made here as early as 1797 by individ-
uals on their own account increasing in quantity until they
came under the control of the State. The greatest quan-
tity was made in the years 1805 and 1808, when there were
twelve or fourteen furnaces in operation averaging from
fifty to sixty bushels a week or about twenty thousand
bushels a year. The price at this period was from two and
a half to three dollars a bushel, and the larger portion
of the middle counties were supplied from these salines;
the salt being transported on pack horses.
^ ^^FTER the division of the settlers into smaller
% /XX % communities, their farming operations were
"^^-^ ^ carried on with much less trouble and labor,
-^^L^- and also to a larger extent. Familiarity with
danger had removed a part of its dread, and new lands
were cleared in addition to those opened before the war,
so that some of the stronger handed began to have produce
for sale, especially Indian corn which was now in demand
as an article of forage for the numerous teams of oxen and
pack horses employed in the transport of provisions and
munitions of war for the army assembled at the frontiers.
The threatened invasion of their country occupied the
thoughts and attention of the Indians more than usual and
their war parties did not harass the settlements on the
Ohio so frequently as in past years. A regular system of
defense, and constant watchfulness, was kept up by the
whites, under the direction of the old veterans who were
at the head of the settlements. They had no horses for
them to steal, and the savage who receives no pay from
his tribe for military services, always aims to make his
attack where he can get some plunder as well as scalps,
being as avaricious as the white man. In addition to the
constant care required for the sustenance and defense of
their families, provision was also made for their future
comfort. Nurseries of apples and peaches were planted,
from seeds obtained east of the mountains, or at head wat-
ers; and scions of the finest apples to be found in New
England, were sent out by Israel Putnam during the war,
and ingrafted ready for the use of the inhabitants as soon
as it should close, which they hoped would be before long,
as the army of General Wayne was sufficient to defeat any
body of warriors the Indians could assemble. In the course
of the Summer of 1794 their hopes were realized, and the
savages so completely routed that further fears of their
hostility ceased to alarm them.
MURDER OF JOHN ARMSTRONG'S FAMILY.
John Armstrong and Peter Mixner, with their families,
spent the winter of 1793-4 in the block house of Isaac Bar-
ker in the upper settlement of Belpre. These men were
interested in a floating mill on the Virginia shore a little
above the head of Blennerhassett Island. Early in the
Spring of 1794 they built cabins and removed their families
to the Virginia side of the river in order to be near their
work. This was considered at the time a hazardous enter-
prise as it proved to be. On the night of April 24th an
attack was made on the cabin of Mr. Armstrong where
Mrs. Armstrong and two young children were tomahawked
and scalped. Three other children were taken into captivity
and restored after the war. The other family, hearing the
alarm, fled to their canoe and escaped before the Indians
reached their cabin. Mr. Armstrong retreated to the mill
where his two oldest boys were sleeping and all escaped.
As soon as the alarm could be given in the morning a party
from Stone's Garrison crossed the river but the Indians
had retreated beyond their reach. The dead bodies were
taken across the river and buried.
The pursuing party found by their trail where the
Indians had raised their sunken canoes and crossed the
Ohio to the Big Hocking up which they pushed their boats
several miles when they left them and traveled by land.
By the prints of the children's feet in the mud they ascer-
tained that the prisoners were yet alive ; and lest they would
kill them if they were overtaken by the whites, they gave
up the pursuit, and returned down stream and across the
Ohio in the bark canoe left by the Indians.
On their arrival at the Wyandot towns the children
were adopted into different families. Jeremiah the young-
est, whose life was saved by the kind offices of a young
warrior, was taken by the celebrated Chief Crane, who is
represented to have been a kind hearted humane man and
used him well. All were given up at the close of the war.
MURDER OF JONAS DAVIS
The last of February, 1795, about ten months after
the massacre of the Armstrong family, Jonas Davis, a
young man from Massachusetts and an inmate of Stone's
Garrison, discovered an old skiff in a pile of drift wood on
the banks of the Ohio, about three miles above Belpre.
He went up in a skiff to secure the nails, from this old boat,
which were quite valuable at that time. While busily at
work he was discovered by a hunting party consisting of
two Indians and a negro who had been adopted into the
tribe. They murdered and scalped him and left his body
beside his skiff. As he did not return a party went up
from the garrison, discovered his body and took it back for
burial. The death of Davis was specially distressing be-
cause he was very soon to be married to a daughter of
Isaac Barker, and his wedding suit was already prepared.
The next day after the death of Davis a party of four
young men headed by John James, proceeded down the
Ohio in a canoe in pursuit of the murderers. They made
quite a long circuit and had some adventures but returned
without finding the object of their pursuit. The murder
of Jonas Davis and that of Sherman Waterman, near Wat-
erford, were the last tragedies of the Indian War in these
In the Spring of 1795, following the treaty of peace
at Greenville, the inhabitants were released from their
five years imprisonment in garrisons, and issuing forth be-
gan to spread themselves up and down the land. Many
fresh emigrants also arrived and increased their numbers.
In a few years large farms were cleared and buildings
erected ; roads were opened and bridges built over many of
the small streams so that wheel carriages could be partially
used. Large orchards were planted out of the finest in-
grafted varieties of fruit, by the inhabitants of Belpre, who,
for many years in advance of other parts of the country
sent boat loads of fruit to the settlements on the Mississippi
river. For a number of years while the Connecticut men
were preparing the "Western Reserve" for the immense
dairies that afterwards enriched them, the people of Belpre
furnished more cheese for the down river trade than any
other district west of the mountains and was at that period
as famous for its cheese as the "Reserve" became at a
later period. After that time the farmers turned their
attention to other branches of agriculture more profitable
to them, especially the growth of fruit. For many years
sixteen cents a pound was the price paid for cheese, sold
to the trading boats at their dairy doors.
The farmers in this settlement for quite a long time
stood at the head of all others in the south east quarter
of Ohio, for intelligence, neatness of agriculture, and com-
fortable dwelling houses; and even at this day of wealth
and improvement in all the older portions of the State,
would not fall much in the background.! In the
stormy period of political strife which attended and
followed the elevation of Jefferson to the presidency of the
United States, they remained firm in the principles of
Washington; and as he had been their model in the camp,
they remained true to his precepts at the ballot box.
I Note. 1848, and even In 1S18 thete wordi ara aot far from Uie truth.
SKETCHES OF PIONEERS, BEING EXTRACTS FROM LIVES OF THE
EARLY SETTLERS OF OHIO BY DR. SAMUEL P. HILDRETH.
CAPTAIN JONATHAN DEVOLL.
f /tr IL^PTAIN DEVOLL, when a young man acquired
Vil/ K the trade of Ship Carpenter and in later years
^ 4^ became quite noted in the construction of boats,
.-^^Li^ ships and mills. He volunteered at the begin-
ning of the revolution, in 1775, as first Lieutenant and Ad-
jutant of the regiment. In 1777 he resigned because super-
ceded in promotion of Adjutant of Second regiment to the
office of Brigade Major. In 1775 he performed a very bril-
liant exploit in capturing a British Brig in Newport har-
bor and the following year captured a band of Tories near
the same locality. He joined the Ohio Company in 1787
and was one of the first forty-eight pioneers who arrived
at Marietta, April 7th, 1788. During the winter he had
superintended the construction of boats at Sumrills Ferry.
He was chiefly engaged during the summers of 1788-9
in building Campus Martins and removed with his family
to Belpre in February 1790. At the breaking out of the
Indian war in 1791 he superintended the construction of
Farmers Castle, and built the Floating Mill at Belpre, in
1791. In 1797 he removed to a farm on Wiseman's bot-
tom, on the Muskingum, five miles above Marietta. Here
the next year he built a floating mill where he did custom
grinding for the farmers on the Ohio and Muskingum
rivers. In 1801 he built a ship of four hundred tons for
B. I. Oilman, Esquire, a merchant of Marietta. The tim-
ber of this vessel was wholly of Black Walnut from the
valley of the Muskingum for which river the ship was
named. In 1802 he built the schooner Nonpareil. In
1807 he built a large frame flouring mill on the spot where
the floating mill was moored. The water wheel was forty
feet in diameter, the largest seen at that day west of the
mountains. During all these days he improved his farm,
planting fruit trees and making his home pleasant and com-
fortable. In 1809 he purchased and put in operation ma-
chinery for carding sheeps wool which had now become so
abundant as to need something more than hand cards, as
farmers were ah'eady owning flocks of sheep. In 1808 he
erected works for dressing and fulling cloth both of which
operations are believed to have been the first ever carried
on in this part of Ohio, if not in the whole state. He may
be called the Master mechanic of the settlers. He died,
during the epidemic fever which prevailed, in 1823, aged
GRIFFIN GREENE, ESQ.
Mr. Greene was born at Warwick, Rhode Island in
1749. Early in life he engaged in the business of a smith
and anchor making, and later he and his cousin Jacob
Green erected a forge for working in iron. He was also a
cousin of General Nathaniel Greene. Both these men be-
longed to the sect of Quakers from which they were ex-
pelled on account of their interest in the war. He com-
menced his military career in 1775, by serving as Com-
missary to the Rhode Island troops, although in the prev-
ious year he had been trained to military exercises as a
volunteer in the Company, to which his cousins Christoph-
er and Nathaniel belonged, with many of the most active
and prominent young men of the colony. In 1777 he was
paymaster in the regiment commanded by Christopher
Greene and during the attack on the fort at Red Bank
was exposed to the shot of the enemy in taking a supply
of powder to his countrymen. In 1778 his cousin Nathaniel
Greene was appointed by Washington quartermaster gen-
eral of the army, and Griffin became one of his deputies,
continuing in that position until General Nathaniel Greene
was placed in command of the southern army.
In 1777 Mr. Greene engaged as a partner in a com-
pany for fitting out two brigantines as privateers, the coast
being at that time pretty clear of British ships of War.
These were called the Black Snake and the Rattle Snake;
but before the one had time to erect its head and the other
to shake its rattles in defiance of the British lion they were
driven on shore at Sandy Hook in April 1778, by an enemy
crusier, and lost. This was the fate of many American
privateers and in the estimate it is probable that as much
was lost as won by the colonies in this nefarious business.
Mr. Griffin Greene wrote many letters concerning pub-
lic affairs during these eventful years. We will give one
concerning Benedict Arnold.
Camp Tappan, Sept. 9, 1780.
Treason! treason! of the blackest kind has been most
providentially discovered. Gen. Arnold, who commanded
at West Point, was in contact with the British Adjutant
General for delivering into the enemy's hands all the forts
and fortifications of that place. The plan was laid, the
conditions settled and the time fiixed for the execution. The
adjutant General had been up to Kiner's ferry to see Gen.
Avriold and on his return to New York, near the White
Plains was taken up by three militarv men who carried him
prisoner to Major Jameson of Sheldons lip-ht-horse; and
on his beinof searched, nlans of the works, the stren.c^;h of
the garrison, and a hundred other observations necessary
to be known in order to favor an attack, were all made out
in Arnolds own hand writinsr. They were immediately
sent to General Washinp1:on who was then on his return
from Hartford. But unfortunately Jameson, from a false
delicacy, reported to Gen. Arnold, that he had taken pris-
oner, one Anderson, which o-ave him time to just make his
escane before General Washington crot to the Point. The
Adjutant general and one Mr. Joseph Smith are now both
prisoners in this camp and doubtless will be hung tomor-
row. We have onlv to lament that Arnold is not to greet
the gallows with them. It appears, from an inquiry into
Arnold's conduct that he is the most accomplished villian
in the world; nothing can exceed his meanness. I am
called upon to attend a court martial and cannot ero further
into this dark and wicked business. The military lads
that took Mr. Andre deserve immortal honor and will be
most liberally rewarded."
Mr. Greene came to Marietta in 1788 bringing beside
his household goods a considerable number of valuable
books. The first anchor made on the Ohio river, made for
the brig St. Clair, was constructed under his direction.
Soon after his arrival at Marietta Governor St. Clair com-
missioned him a justice of the peace and one of the Judges
of the Court of Quarter Sessions. In 1789 he was made
director of the Ohio Company in place of General Varnum,
deceased, an office he held until the affairs of the company-
were closed. He joined the Belpre Association in 1790,
and was a leading man in the colony, solemnizing marriages
and settling civil disputes among them. In January, 1802
he was appointed Post Master at Marietta which office he
held until his death. In July 1802 he was appointed col-
lector for the district of Marietta by Thomas Jefferson.
He was also inspector for the port of Marietta. Ships
were built here and cleared from this port. He was a lead-
er in the enterprise, already described, which discovered
the Scioto Salt Spring. In person he was tall of genteel
and accomplished manners, having seen and associated
with much refined company and men of talents. As a man
of genius he ranked with the first of the Ohio Company's
settlers, abounding as it did with able men.
He died in 1804 at the age of fifty-five.
CAPTAIN WILLIAM DANA.
Captain Dana was of French Huguenot descent and
was born at Brighton, Mass. in 1745.
He removed his family to the vicinity of Worcester,
Mass. just before the battle of Lexington.
He was chosen Captain of an Artillery Company and
was stationed a mile or two out of Charleston at the time
of the battle of Bunker Hill. An express from General
Putnam, near its close, arrived with orders to hasten on
to the hill to reinforce the flagging provincials. He started
at full speed but met his countrymen on Charleston neck
on their retreat.
He remained in the service two or three years attach-
ed to the department of General Knox head of the Artil-
In the Summer of 1788 he and two sons came to Mar-
ietta where he cleaerd a small section of land and built a
brick kiln and burned the first brick made in Ohio. In
1789 he removed with his family, to Belpre and drew a lot
of land just above the head of Blennerhassett Island and
spent the winter in a small cabin but built a comfortable
home in 1790.
He lived in Farmers Castle during the Indian war. A
few years after its close his land was cleared, a convenient
frame house built, orchards of fruit trees in bearing, and
smiling plenty crowned his table, around which assembled
eight sons and three daughters. In person Captain Dana
was tall and in his manhood sustained the position and
bearing of a Soldier. In disposition he was cheerful and
social and never happier than when surrounded by his old
associates at the festive board.
He died in 1809.
COL. NATHANIEL CUSHING.
Mr. Cushing belonged to the illustrious Cushing fam-
ily of Boston and was born in Pembroke, Mass., April 8th.
1753. At the beginning of the revolutionary war he lived
in or near Boston. In July, 1775, he was commissioned
Lieutenant in Captain Trescott's Company and Colonel
Brewers regiment, promoted as Captain in 1777, and came
out of the war as Major by be vet.
He was engaged in many battles and skirmishes and
was regarded as one of the most brave and successful of-
ficers. By his kindness to those under his command and
his watchful care for the best interest of his men, he was
a great favorite with the soldiers. His Company was at-
tached to Gen. Rufus Putnam's regiment of light infantry
and he made some daring and successful raids on the en-
emy. At that time there was a large district between the
contending armies called the neutral ground that was near-
ly deserted by the inhabitants, and ravaged by both par-
ties especially by the Tories, who, from this and the ad-
joining country, supplied the British in New York with
forage and fresh provisions. The Americans, to watch
the incursions of the enemy and keep the Tories from rob-
bing the peaceable inhabitants near the lines, kept strong
outposts or detachments of soldiers on the borders between
King's bridge and the White Plains. It was a dangerous
position for the troops, and none but the most active and
vigilant of the partisan officers were selected for this ser-
vice. They were not only liable to sudden and night at-
tacks from the bands of Tories who were born and brought
up here, and were familiar with every road and by-path,
but also exposed to a corps of light horse under the noted
partisan officer Col. Simcoe who had cut off and destroyed
several advanced parties of American troops.
To avoid the latter casualties, the order of the Com-
manding General was, that they should not advance beyond
a certain line into the neutral ground, but keep within their
own defenses, lest they should be surprised by the light
horse and cut to pieces. Among others ordered on this
hazardous service, was Capt. Gushing with a detachment
of men in addition to his own Gompany. Soon after ar-
riving and taking up his position, information was brought
by some of the Whig inhabitants, that there was a consid-
erable body of Tories posted at no great distance from him
on the road to New York. The opportunity thus afforded
of distinguishing himself and the detachment under his or-
ders was too great to be resisted; besides, if successful,
he would be doing a service to the cause, and wipe away
some of the disgrace attached to the defeat of other officers
who had preceeded him in this service. With the main
body of his men he, early that night, commenced a rapid
march across the country, by an unfrequented road and
about midnight surprised and captured the whole party.
Gol. Simcoe, with his mounted rangers, was posted in that
vicinity, and received early notice of the event, by some
friend of the British and acting with his usual promptness,
immediately commenced a pursuit, with the expectation of
cutting to pieces the detachment, and releasing the prison-
ers. Gapt. Gushing, with all haste, posted off the Gaptive
Tories in advance, under a small guard : charging the officer
to rush on toward the lines as rapidly as possible, while he
followed more leisurely in the rear, with the main body
of troops. Expecting a pursuit from Simcoe; he marched
in three ranks, and arranged the order of defense if it
were attacked by the cavalry; a kind of troops much more
dreaded by the infantry than those of their own class.
When about half way back, the clattering hoofs of the
rangers horses were heard in hot pursuit. As they ap-
proached, he halted his detachment in the middle of the
road, ready to receive the charge. It fortunately happened
that he found, in the house with the captured Tories a
number of long spears or lances, sufficient to arm the rear
rnnk. When called to a halt, and face the enemy, it brought
the spearmen in front. Standing in close array, shoulder
to shoulder, with one end resting on the ground, they re-
ceived their enraged enemies on their points, while the
other two ranks poured upon them a deadly fire, leaving
many of the horses without riders. This unexpected re-
sult threw them into disorder, and their leader directed a
retreat. Gushing now renewed his march in the same
order. Simcoe, enraged and chagrined at the failure of
his charge, again ordered a fresh and more furious onset,
but was received by his brave antagonist in the same cool
and resolute manner, and met a still more decided repulse,
losing a number of his best men and horses. Not yet sat-
isfied to let his enemies escape he made a third unsuccess-
ful attempt and gave up the pursuit, leaving Capt. Gushing
to retire at his leisure. He reached his post unmolested,
with all the prisoners, and the loss of only a few men
wounded; none killed. The following day he was relieved
by a fresh detachment and marched into camp with the
trophies of this brave adventure.
The morning after his return, in the orders of the day,
by the commander-in-chief, notice was taken of this af-
fair, and any similar attempt by the troops on the lines
forbidden, thereby apparently censuring the conduct of
Gapt. Gushing. This was rather a damper to the feelings
of a brave officer, who was peculiarly sensitive and sus-
tained a nice sense of military honor. Soon after the pro-
mulgation of the order, and he had retired to his tent brood-
ing over the event of the morning, and half inclined to be
both angry and mortified at the nice distinctions of the
Gommander, an aid of Gen. Washington entered with a
polite invitation to dine with him. He readily complied
with the request and at the table was placed in the post
of honor at Washington's right hand. A large number of
officers were present, in whose hearing he highly compli-
mented Gapt. Gushing for the gallant manner in which he
conducted the retreat with the coolness and success he had
done; but at the same time added that for the strict and
orderly discipline of the army, it was necessary to discoun-
tenance every act that contravened the orders of the Gom-
mander-in-chief. This satisfied all his mortified feelings
and increased his love and respect for his revered general.
His was one of the first families who arrived in Mar-
ietta, August 19th, 1788.
Soon after his arrival he was commissioned by Gover-
nor Saint Glair as Gaptain in the First Regiment. He
was one of the most active, brave, and intelligent men in
arranprinjr and conducting military and civil affairs in the
settlement. After the capture of Maj. Goodale by Indians
he was chosen Commandant in Farmers Castle.
He was gentlemanly and refined in manners, very cour-
teous and affable in his intercourse with others, whether
poor or rich, and very highly esteemed by Mr. and Mrs.
He died in 1814.
MAJOR JONATHAN HASKELL
Major Haskell was born in Rochester, Mass. in 1754
and entered the Army when twenty one years of age and
served to the close of the war. He came to Marietta in
1788 and in 1789 joined the Belpre Association. On the
breaking out of the Indian War he received a commission
as Captain in the regular service and went to Rochester,
Mass., where he recruited a Company of soldiers and re-
turned with them to Marietta, in December, 1791, where he
was stationed for the defense of that nnd the surrounding
settlements, as soldiers had been withdrawn from Fort
Harmar in 1790.
He remained in Marietta until 1793 when he was com-
missioned Captain in the second sub legion under Gen.
Wayne and joined the army on the frontier that summer.
He was stationed at Fort Saint Clair, where he re-
mained until June, 1794 when he was appointed to the
command of the fourth Sub-division with the rank of
Major, although his commission was not filed until Aug.
After the war Maj. Haskell returned to his farm in
Belpre where he died in 1814.
A letter written by him to Griffin Greene and Benja-
min I. Oilman gives a very graphic account of the celebrated
campaign under General Wayne.
LETTER FROM CAPT. HASKELL TO GRIFFIN GREEN
AND B. I. OILMAN.
The last time I wrote you was from Fort St. Clair,
the date I have forgotten. In June last I was relieved from
the Post and joined the fourth Sub-legion which I have
commanded ever since. The 28th of July the army moved
forward, consisting of about 1900 regulars and 1500 Militia
from Kentucky, by the way of the battle ground, now Fort
Recovery, then turned to the eastward and struck the Saint
Marys in 20 miles, where we erected a small fort, and left
a subaltern Command. — Crossed the St. Marys. — In four
or five days march found the Anglaize, — continued down
that river to where it formed a junction with the Miami of
the Lakes — 100 miles from Greenville by the route we
took. — At this place we built a garrison and left a Maj.
to command it, and the army proceeded down the river to-
ward the Lake, 47 miles from this garrison until the 20th
inst. In the morning about nine o'clock we found the In-
dians who had placed themselves for us. When the attack
commenced we formed and charged them with our bavonets
and pursued them two miles through a very bad thicket of
woods, loffs, and underbrush and with the charge of the
Cavalry routed and defeated them. Our line extended in
length one and a half miles and it was with difficulty we
outflanked them. The prisoner, (a white man) we took,
says they computed their number as 1200 Indians and 250
white men, Detroit Militia, in action. Our loss in the en-
gagement was two officers killed, four officers wounded:
about thirty soldiers killed and eightv wounded. The In-
dians suffered most, perhaps 40 or 50 of their killed fell
into our hands. The prisoner was asked why they did not
fight better. He said: we would give them no time to
load their pieces but kept them constantlv on the move.
Two miles in advance of the action is a British Garrison
established last Spring around which we marched within
pistol shot. In the day time it was demanded but not
given up. Our artillery not being sufficient and the place
too strong to storm, it was not attempted but we burned
their outhouses, destroyed their gardens, corn fields, and
hay, within musket shot of the fort and down beyond them
8 or 9 miles without opposition. The 27th inst. we arrived
here where our fort is and are to halt a few days to refresh.
We have marched about 60 miles through the Indian vil-
lages and settlements and have destroyed several thousand
acres of corn and all kinds of vegetables; burned their
houses, furniture, tools, etc. A party have gone on to
Fort Recovery for a supply of provisions for us. It is said
that when they return we go up the Miami 60 miles to
where the St. Marys forms a junction with the St. Joseph
and destroy all the corn in the country.
In great haste, I am, gentlemen,
Your humble servant,
To J. HASKELL.
B. I. GILLMAN.
Letter received by Mr. Gilman at Harmar Point, Oct.
13th, '94 and sent to Mr. Green.
Dr. Hildreth adds the following very appropriate
words which give an insight into conditions at that time.
"This letter describes, in plain terms the ruin and de-
vastation that marked the course of the American Army.
It might have been considered a wise policy to devote to
destruction the dwellings, corn fields, gardens, and in fact
every species of property that belonged to the hostile Sav-
ages, but it was also a most cruel policy. The British
troops, in their inroads among the rebel settlements of the
Revolutionary war, never conducted more barbarously. The
Indian villages on the Miami and the Anglaize were snugly
and comfortably built — were furnished with many conven-
ient articles of housekeeping and clothing. They had large
fields of corn and beans, with gardens of melons, Squashes
and various other vegetables. Mr. Joseph Kelley of Mar-
ietta, then a boy of twelve years old, and for several years
a prisoner with the Indians, who treated him kindly, and
was adopted into a family as one of their children, was
living at that time at the junction of the St. Marys and the
Auglaize, the spot where Maj. Haskell says the army would
next go, to complete their work of destruction. Mr. Kelley
was there when an Indian runner announced that the Amer-
ican troops had arrived in the vicinity of the village. His
friends had not expected them so soon, and with the utmost
haste and consternation, the old men, with the women and
children, the warriors being absent, hurried aboard their
canoes, taking nothing with them but a few clothes and
blankets, not having time to collect any provisions from
their fields and gardens.
The Sun was only an hour or two high when they de-
parted, in as deep sorrow at the loss of their country and
homes, as the Trojans of old when they evacuated their
favorite city. Before the next day at noon their nice vil-
lage was burnt to the ground; their cornfields of several
hundred acres, just beginning to ripen, were cut down and
trampled under foot by the horses and oxen of the invad-
ers, while their melons and squashes were pulled up by the
roots. The following winter the poor Indians, deprived of
their stock of corn and beans, which were grown every
year and laid up for their winter food as regularly as among
the white people, suffered the extreme of want. Game was
scarce in the country they retreated to on the west of the
Miami, and what few deer and fish they could collect barely
served to keep them alive. It was a cruel policy, but prob-
ably, subdued their Spartan courage more than two or
three defeats, as for many years thereafter, until the days
of Tecumseh, they remained at peace.
COLONEL EBENEZER BATTELLE
Col. Battelle was the only son of Ebenezer Battelle and
was born at Dedham, Mass., and graduated from Cambridge
College in 1775. He held a commission of Colonel under
the Governor of Massachusetts in the Militia. He was one
of the active partners in a book store in Boston for about
six years. While here he was elected to the command of
the ancient and honorable artillery Company, a noted band
of military men, composed of officers of good standing and
He became an associate in the Ohio Company and came
to Marietta with Colonel May in the Spring of 1788 and
his family came in November of the same year. During
the following winter he became a member of the Belpre
Association and in the Spring of 1789 proceeded to clear
his land and erect a stout block house for the reception of
his family. May 1st, Captain King was killed by Indians.
The following day Col. Battelle, with two of his sons and
Griffin Greene, Esq., embarked at Marietta in a large canoe,
with farming tools, provisions, &c. On their way down
they were hailed by some one from the shore and inform-
ed of this sad event. They landed and held a consultation
on what was best to be done. Some were for returning;
but they fianlly decided to proceed.
The block-houses of these two emigrants were near
each other, and nearly opposite the middle of Backus' Is-
land, on the spot afterwards occupied by Farmers Castle.
After landing the other settlers joined them for mutual de-
fense, and through the night kept up a military guard, in
the old revolutionary style, the sentinel calling out every
fifteen minutes "All's well" not thinking this would give
the skulking Indians notice where to find them. No enemy,
however, molested them during the night, and their fears
of an attack gradually subsided.
Early in April, before any families had moved on to
the ground, a party of officers from Fort Harmar, with
their wives, and a few ladies from Marietta, made a visit
to the new settlement in the officer's barge, a fine large boat,
rowed with twelve oars. These were the first white fe-
males who ever set foot on the soil of Belpre. On their
return Col. Battelle, with several others, accompanied them
by water in a canoe, and another party by land. While
on the voyage, a large bear was discovered swimming
across the river. The landsmen fired at him with their
muskets and rifles, but without effect. The canoe then
ranged alongside, when Col. Battelle seized him by the tail
and when the bear attempted to bite his hand, he raised his
hind parts, throwing his head under water, and thus es-
caped his teeth. One of his companions soon killed him
with an axe. He weighed over three hundred pounds and
afforded several fine dinners to his captors.
In the plan of Farmers Castle his blockhouse occupied
the north east corner. Col. Battelle was very much inter-
ested in Education and religion in the settlement. Both
schools and religious services were held in a large room in
his block house. He officiated as Chaplain when no clergy-
man was present. Some times he gave a discourse of his
own but oftener read a sermon of some eminent divine.
He made Sunday respected and honored in the settlement.
In the early years he was paid twenty dollars by the Ohio
Company for his services as a religious teacher. He died
in the home of his son at Newport, Ohio in 1815.
COLONEL ISRAEL PUTNAM.
Colonel Israel Putnam, the elder, was plowing at Pom-
fret, Conn, with four oxen in April, 1775 when he heard of
the battle of Lexington. He immediately left his oxen and
mounting his favorite horse rode with all possible haste to
Cambridge, Mass., where he did most important service,
and was soon Commissioned a Major General. His son
Israel soon raised a Company and served under his father
until the arrival of General Washington as Commander-in-
Chief. Israel continued in the service as aid to his Father
At the close of the war he became a raiser of blooded
Stock some of which he brought with him to Ohio.
He also brought a considerable number of valuable
books which were the foundation of Belpre Farmers Li-
brary. He was an influential man and was a leader in the
establishment of both education and religion.
When absent from home his wife took charge of the
family of six children. She was a woman of great spirit,
and as firm a patriot as the general himself, hating, with
all her soul and strength, the British oppressors of her
country, who were technically called Redcoats, and loving
with equal ardor the American soldiers, supplying them
with food and clothing to the extent of her ability. In the
winter of 1779 when the patriot troups suffered so much
from the want of warm garments, she had spun and woven
in her own house, a number of blankets made from the
finest wool in the flock, and sent on for their relief. Num-
erous pairs of stockings were also manufactured by her
own hands and contributed in the same way. No one at
this day knows, or can appreciate the value of the labors
of American females in achieving our freedom. They
wrought and suffered in silence, bearing many privations
in common with their husbands and sons in the days which
tried the patriotism of the colonies. She was a woman of
elevated mind and great personal courage, worthy of the
family to which she was allied. In the absence of her
husband, when the vultures and hawks attacked the poultry,
she could load and fire his light fowling piece at them,
without dodging at the flash.
AARON WALDO PUTNAM.
Aaron Waldo Putnam was a son of Col. Israel Put-
nam, and came with his father to Ohio in 1788, when he
was about twenty years of age. He remained in charge
of his farm in Belpre while his father was absent during
the Indian War. He had two very thrilling adventures
with Indians during this time which have already been
narrated. After the close of the war he worked diligently
in improving his farm which was one of the best in the
valley. He introduced the best breeds of stock then
known. He planted extensive orchards, grafted with
scions of the best known varieties of fruit, brought from
In 1800 he built a very fine house which still stands
and is occupied by his descendants. This house and also
the house built by Capt. Jonathan Stone near the village
are good examples of the best New England farm house
of that period. When built the upper story was fitted up
for a ball room, and in an inaugural ball Lady Blenner-
hassett from the Island led in some of the dances. The
sturdy puritans of that time were conscientious and firm
in their moral convictions, but believed also in recreations
and when we consider the anxieties of those years when
they knew that a murderous foe might be skulking in the
neighboring forest, waiting for a night attack, we must
commend their plans for such social amusements as would
bind them close together and encourage them to persevere
in their homes until danger from the Savages should pass
away. This Putnam house, painted white, and standing
on the margin of the Plain, or second bottom, and sur-
rounded by orchards, became a conspicuous object to trav-
elers on the "Belle Riviere" as there were at that time little
besides wilderness and log cabins between Pittsburg and
CAPTAIN JONATHAN STONE
Capt. Jonathan Stone was born in Braintree, Mass.
and was son of Francis Stone who lost his life in the army
of Gen. Wolfe at the conquest of Quebec. He entered the
service of his country at the beginning of the revolution
and the following year married Susanna Matthews a niece
of Gen. Rufus Putnam. In the army he rose step by step
to the rank of Captain. After the war he settled in Brook-
field, Mass., and was employed by Gen. Putnam as a sur-
veyor in the Province of Maine. He also served with
Gen. Lincoln in subduing Shay's rebellion in which re-
bellion a brother of his and other relatives were engaged.
He visited Marietta in the fall of 1788 and made pro-
vision for the reception of his family. On July 4th,
1789 he left Brookfield, Mass., with a wagon, drawn by
four oxen, containing his household goods and three chil-
dren. Two cows were driven on ahead, while his wife
traveled on horse-back the whole distance to Simril's ferry,
the western rendezvous for emigrants to Marietta. At
Buffalo or Charleston, he bartered one yoke of oxen for pro-
visions to support his family until he could raise a crop
From the avails of a farm he had sold in Brookfield,
he secured two shares of the Ohio Companies lands being
about two thousands acres. He reached Belpre Dec. 10th
and put up a log cabin on his lot, drawn the previous
winter, making the floors and doors from the planks of the
boat in which he descended the river. His farm lay in
the wide bottom opposite and a little below the mouth of
the Little Kanawha (still owned by his descendants.)
During the Indian war he removed his family to Farmers
Castle and was one of the most active and efficient defend-
ers of that garrison. In the Spring of 1793, he, with sev-
eral others erected a palisade and several blockhouses on
his own farm and remained there until the peace of 1795.
In 1792 he was appointed Treasurer of Washington
County by Winthrop Sargent, then acting as governor of
the North West Territory. After the peace he was em-
ployed by the Ohio Company, with Jeffery Mathewson, to
complete the surveys of their lands, which was done in a
masterly manner. He died after a short illness, March
25, 1801 aged fifty.
Captain Stone was a man with a well formed agree-
able person, gentlemanly manners and social habits. By
his contemporaries he was highly esteemed. In 1911 the
Belpre Historical Society erected a granite monument to
point out the locality of Stones Garrison. (See account of
Belpre Historical Society.)
MAJOR NATHAN GOODALE
Maj. Nathan Goodale, son of Solomon and Anna Good-
ale, was born about 1743. His father died about one year
later and in 1745 his mother, Anna Goodale, married Dea
Samuel Ware and Nathan spent his early years in his
fDea Samuel and Anna Goodale Ware, were great, great, grandparents of the compiler of this
He married Elizabeth Phelps, September 11th, 1765
and about 1770 removed to Brookfield, Mass., where he
labored on the farm and as a bricklayer. Mr. Goodale
had made some preparation for a soldier life in drilling as
a minute man and entered the army as a Lieutenant and
was afterwards commissioned as Captain with which rank
he continued through the war, to which was added a brev-
He purchased a share in the Ohio Company and ar-
rived at Marietta with the first families, Aug. 19, 1788.
Soon after his arrival at Marietta Governor St. Clair ap-
pointed him Captain of a Company of light infantry se-
lected from the most active men in the colony. His ex-
perience in military affairs rendered him a very able and
efficient officer familiar with all the details of actual ser-
vice. He was one of the first settlers in Belpre in 1789.
During the short period he lived here he was considered
to be one of the most industrious, persevering and thor-
oughly educated farmers in the County.
At the beginning of the Indian War he went with his
family to Farmers Castle. In making the arrangement
for the defense and military government of the garrison
he was the leading man; and the command was by unani-
mous consent given to him. His tragic kidnapping by
Indians make him the martyr of Belpre and seems to make
it proper that we describe his career somewhat in detail.
General Rufus Putnam wrote to General Washington rec-
ommending Captain Goodale for promotion in which he
gives the following description of his exploits in active
service : "In the dark month of November, 1776, Mr. Good-
ale entered the service as a Captain in the regiment under
my command, and was in the field early the next Spring;
but, although he always discovered a thirst for enterprise,
yet fortune never gave his genius fair play until August,
1777. It is well known into what a panic the country
and even the northern army, were thrown on the taking
of Ticonderoga. When General Gates took command in
that quarter our army lay at Van Shaicks island ; and Mr.
Burgoyne, with his black wings and painted legions lay at
Saratoga. The woods were so infested with Savages, that
for some time none of the Scouts who were sent out for
the purpose of obtaining prisoners or intelligence of the en-
emy's situation succeeded in either. General Gates, being
vexed at continual disappointments, desired an officer to
procure him a man that would undertake, at all hazards,
to perform this service. Captain Goodale, being spoken
to, voluntarily undertook the business under the following
orders from General Gates: "Sir, you are to choose out a
Sergeant and six privates and proceed with them to the
enemy's camp, unless you lose your life or are captured, and
not return until you obtain a full knowledge of their situa-
tion. Captain Goodale in his report of this scout, says it
was not performed without great danger as the party was
much harrassed by the Indians which occasioned their be-
ing in the woods three days without provisions. However
he succeeded beyond expectation; first throwing himself
between their outguards and their camp, where he conceal-
ed his party until he examined their situation very fully,
and then brought off six prisoners, whom he took within
their guards, and returned to General Gates without any
loss. This success induced General Gates to continue him
in that kind of service. A full detail of all the art and
address which he discovered during the remainder of that
campaign would make my letter quite too long. It may be
enough to observe that, before the capture of the British
army, one hundred and twenty-one prisoners fell into his
hands. But as Captain Goodale is no less brave and de-
termined in the open field where opposed to regular troops,
than he is artful as a partisan of the woods, I beg your
patience while I recite one instance of this kind. A day or
two after Mr. Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga, on a foggy
morning, Nixons brigade was ordered to cross the creek
which separated the two armies. Captain Goodale with
forty volunters went over before the advance guard. He
soon fell in with a British guard of about the same number.
The ground was an open plain, but the fog prevented their
discovering each other until they were within a few yards,
when both parties made ready nearly at the same time.
Captain Goodale, in this position, reserved his fire and ad-
vanced immediately upon the enemy, who waited with a
design to draw it from him; but he had the address to in-
timidate them in such a manner, by threatening immediate
death to any one who should fire, that not more than two
or three obeyed the order of their own officer, when he gave
the word. The result was that the officer and thirty-four
of the guard were made prisoners."
We have an account of another of his exploits from a
different source. At the action of Valentine Hill the com-
mander of the troops to which he was attached, had order-
ed him to keep possession of a certain pass, important to
the Americans, at all hazards, without any discretionary
power as to continp:encies. His command consisted of
about forty light infantry and a number of Indians who
stood the attack of a large body of the enemy and a com-
pany of cavalry, until there were only seventeen men left
out of the forty. Near the close of the combat the officer
who led the charge rushed upon him with his sword. Cap-
tain Goodale with a loaded musket, which he had probably
picked up from one of his fallen men, shot the Briton dead
from his horse as he approached. In a moment another
of the enemy, seeing the fall of his leader, sprang at him
in desperation, with a full purpose to revenge his death.
The musket being discharged, the only resourse was to
parry the descending blow aimed at his head, in the best
manner he could with the empty piece. It fell obliquely,
being turned from it course by the musket and instead of
splitting the skull of its intended victim glanced on the
bone, peeling up a portion of the scalp several inches in
length. The stunning effects of the blow felled him to the
earth, but directly recovering, he rose to his feet. In the
meantime the Cavalryman, who had leaned forward in the
saddle farther than prudent to give a certain death-stroke,
lost his balance when the heavy sword glanced from the
skull, and fell to the earth. The bayonet of Captain Good-
ale immediately pinned him to the ground and left him
dead by the side of his leader. Thus two of the enemy fell
by his hand in less than a minute. Seeing all prospect of
further resistance useless he retreated with the balance of
his men to an open woodland near the scene of action and
secreted himself under a pile of brush.
An Indian had hidden under another heap, where they
might have remained in safety until dark and then escaped ;
but the Savage, having an opportunity to shoot one of the
enemy who approached their hiding place, could not re-
sist the chance to add another scalp to his trophies and
shot him. The report of the gun revealed their hiding
place, and, being discovered, they were made prisoners.
He remained for some time in the hands of the enemy, and
when exchanged, his children related, that the British
officers put poison in wine to which he was treated. He
was sick for some time but recovered and resumed his place
in the army. A narrative of his kidnapping and death is
found in the account of Farmers Castle. An account of
the dedication of a monum.ent erected to his memory is re-
corded in the history of the Belpre Historical Society.
MAJOR ROBERT BRADFORD
Major Robert Bradford was born at old Plymouth,
Mass., in 1750. He was a lineal descendant of Governor
Bradford, of about the fifth remove. His wife was Kezia
Little, daughter of Captain Nathaniel Little, of Kingston,
Mass. He entered early, and with all his heart, into the
service of his country during the Revolutionary War, and
for the larger part of that period commanded a company
of light infantry. His military life commenced at the
battle of Bunker Hill and ended with the Capture of Corn-
wallis at Yorktown, being actually engaged in nearly all
the pitched battles fought in the middle and eastern states.
With many other American Officers he received the gift of
an elegant sword from Marquis LaFayette as a mark of
When the Ohio Company was formed he became an
associate and removed his family to Marietta in 1788, and
removed to Belpre in 1789. He was associated with Colo-
nel Battelle in the expedition which discovered the site of
the Scioto sale spring.
Captain Benjamin Miles, from Rutland, Mass., was
an officer during the Revolution and one of the early set-
tlers at Belpre. His farm was in the lower settlement.
He bought on from the east some choice cattle, among
them a pair of very large oxen which the Indians wantonly
killed when they failed to capture A. W. Putnam and Na-
thaniel Fisher. Captain Miles was a substantial farmer
and a man of influence. He built the first brick house in
the settlement in which he had a tavern. The first town
meeting in Belpre was held at his house. When the First
Church was organized in Marietta in 1795 Captain Miles
was chosen deacon for Belpre. He died at Belpre in 1817.
CAPT. PERLEY HOWE.
Peiiey Howe when a young man came to Marietta dur-
ing the first years of the Colony and married Persis,
daughter of Gen. Rufus Putnam, May 2, 1798. Soon after
this he removed to his farm about one mile west of Belpre
Village. He was a school teacher for a number of years
and was known as "Master Howe." He was considered
one of the best teachers in the County. He was commis-
sioned Capt. of the First Brigade, third division of the
Washington County Militia in 1804 by Governor Tiffin.
At the time of Burr's conspiracy this company stood guard
and Captain Howe was a witness in the trial. He was the
first Deacon of the Congregational church of Belpre and
held the office until his death. Himself and family were
prominent musicians in the church for two or three gen-
He and his son entered into a business partnership,
and at the close of a contract with several specifications
to which they mutually agreed, they added the words, "and
lastly we agree at all times to exemplify the Spirit of
Christ." What a revolution would be wrought in business
if all was conducted according to this principle.
The following sketches of pioneers are copied and con-
densed from the interesting History of Newbury by Mrs.
Laura Curtis Preston.
Truman and Stephen Guthrie each received a share in
the Ohio Company's lands from their father, Joseph Guth-
rie of Washington, Conn. They journeyed most of the
way to Pittsburg on foot and by river to Marietta where
they arrived July 3rd, 1788. Truman cleared about half
an acre of land near Mound Cemetery, enclosing it with a
brush fence; he sowed about a peck of wheat he had
brought from Pennsylvania. This is said to have been
the first wheat sown in Ohio and later the product of this
same wheat was sown in Newbury. During the following
year these brothers went back to Connecticut. In 1791
they returned to Newbury, Stephen with his wife and in-
fant daughter Laura, in company with Eleazer Curtis and
family. Later Truman married Elizabeth daughter of Col.
Israel Stone of Belpre, taking his wife home in a canoe.
They ate their first meal in this home from the head of a
barrel. Their first table was a poplar pincheon hewed and
planed, making a cross legged table which still remains in
In 1795 when Belpre township was organized Stephen
Guthrie, being one of the prominent men in that part of
the County, was appointed by the Governor a Justice of
the Peace. One cold day in January, while he was engaged
with some men in killing hogs, he observed a party of half
a dozen coming in their sleds, who, coming up, went into
the house and made known the object of their visit. The
Justice suggested that he should have time to change his
garments, as he had on a long white linen frock, provided
in those days for log rolling and all dirty work, and said to
the party that his appearance was not proper, as his long
frock was badly soiled with blood. "Oh ! said the intended
bride, We're in a great hurry; it makes no difference."
So the ceremony was performed in short order, the groom
giving the bride a smack which sounded like the crack of
a small pistol. "What's to pay Square?" said the groom.
His answer was "the law allows a dollar and a half." "All
right, I have not got it today, but will pay with flax in the
Spring." But the flax never grew. (A Pioneer Sketch
by Stephen H. Guthrie.)
Howell and Captain Aaron Bull of Weathersfield,
Conn., were original proprietors of one of the one hundred
acre lots at the lower end of Newbury bottom. The broth-
ers came to Ohio in 1789. Howell's name is found in the
list of single men in Farmers Castle in 1791 and Aarons
in the list of grand jurors the same year. They cleared
about three acres of their land, built a cabin and sold their
claim to Eleazer Curtis in 1794. Aaron returned to Con-
necticut. Howell Bull was an active intelligent man.
While an inmate of Farmers Castle he rushed to the rescue
of Aaron Waldo Putnam and Nathaniel Littfe as they were
running toward the fort pursued by Indians.
CAPT. ELEAZER CURTIS.
Capt. Eleazer Curtis (the title was probably given him
in the Indian war) enlisted as a private in the War of
Revolution, and was discharged a Sergeant. He endured the
memorable winter at Valley Forge. He, with his wife and
five children, from Warren, Conn, made the trip to Ohio
with the Guthrie brothers in 1798. The trip to Pittsburg
was long and tedious, but with nothing more serious than
the overturning of one wagon, as they crossed the moun-
tains. As they floated down the Ohio, in a flat boat, just
above Wheeling the boat caught in an overhanging tree,
causing a plank to spring, and the boat would have filled
with water had not Capt. Curtis caught up a feather bed
and stuffed it into the hole. A young man who attempted
to climb the overhanging tree, fell into the water, and was
drowned. They arrived at Marietta in November, 1791.
The family resided respectively in Marietta, Goodale's gar-
rison, and Newbury stockade, until the close of the Indian
war, when they moved on to their farm, which Mr. Curtis
had purchased of the Bull brothers. In 1795 he built a
two story log house which was the best in the neighbor-
hood at that time. A brick residence was built in 1827-8
by Walter Curtis son of Eleazer, all the material being
made on the premises. Walter purchased the farm of the
other heirs and also added other acres to it. Mrs. Curtis
who was Almira daughter of Stephen Guthrie, boarded the
men who worked on the house, and in addition to the house
work, wove fifty-seven yards of linen sheeting, sold about
one hundred and fifty pounds of cheese besides what was
consumed by a family of twelve. Walter Curtis represent-
ed Washington County in the Legislature, was Associate
Judge, three years. Justice of the Peace, and held other
minor ofl^ces. He, and his brother, Horace, were partners
in the Keel-boat business, going to Pittsburg, Charleston,
Cincinnati, and other points down the river. His son. Aus-
tin, was also a state representative. Justice of the Peace,
and serv'ed in the war of the rebellion. The farm is still
owned by the descendants of Eleazer Curtis.
James Knowles, a soldier of the Revolution, with
Martha his wife and six sons and one daughter emigrated
from Cape May County N. J. to Ohio in 1794. A son
Reuben was a soldier in the War of 1812. In 1810 Reu-
ben and James were on a produce boat going down the
Mississippi; on the way they tied up for the night near
what is now New Madrid. That night there was an earth-
quake that caved off the bank where they were and over
one hundred acres of land sank, forming a lake that still
Tall Sycamore trees went down end first; in the
scramble for his life James caught hold of a tree and
climbed as it sank. All the crew came out alive from that
fearful night but the boat and contents were lost. Reuben
and Amos worked on the boat that Aaron Burr had built
Aaron Clough, then a young man of twenty years,
drew the land opposite Newbury Bar. With ten other men
one of whom was Captain John Leavens a fellow towns-
man, he made the journey to Ohio. One of the party kept
a journal which still exists, and records the following.
"This party went out, not as members of a Company, but on
our own hook, according to our own roving disposition
and desire to see the world. We had a team of four horses,
and a baggage wagon for clothes, farming tools and provis-
ions, and had a very merry journey through the country."
They were forty six days on the journey, landing at Mar-
ietta, May 18, 1788, just six weeks after the first arrivals.
Peregrene Foster was a soldier in the Revolutionary
War, and was present at the execution of Major Andre.
After the war he removed to Providence, R. I. where he
practiced law for a few years. He was one of the surveyors
in the company of pioneers who landed at Marietta, April
7th, 1788. He returned to Providence later in that same
year, removed to Morgantown, Penn. in 1792 and in 1796
to Belpre. During that year he secured a franchise for a
ferry across the Ohio river, on which franchise a ferry was
operated by a succession of owners until purchased by the
Bridge Company in 1918. Mr. Foster died in 1804.
AFTER THE INDIAN WAR.
^^%HERE is always a glamour of romance about
\tl ^ the commencement of a new enterprise, as for
^ example, the construction of a railway. There
^^^ is the securing of a charter, the survey, the
grading, the laying of the first rail, and the running
of the first train; every specific event is full of in-
terest, to all concerned but when the road is complete
and trains run on regular schedules the romance gives
place to reality, and the history of a passing year is very
nearly like that of the preceeding years. This illustrates
the experience of one who attempts to gather material for
the history of a new settlement like that of Belpre. The
beginnings of this history are full of romantic interest;
there was the survey, and the discovery of this locality
specially adapted to agriculture, the forming of an Asso-
ciation and decision to take up their claims and establish
their homes here, the clearing of a few acres of land, the
building of temporary cabins, raising the first crops, the
building of a garrison for defense, the Indian war with
constant danger of attack, every event was full of interest
to all the people, and was preserved in journals and letters,
which are available to the historian. But when the danger
of attack by Indians had passed and families could leave
the garrison and all could live in safety on their o^\m farms,
their experiences were very similar from year to year, for
the romance had given place to a routine which made his-
tory of each year little more than a repetition of the past,
and it became more difficult to discover and record items
of special interest.
We have already seen that the pioneers of Belpre were
characterized by intelligence, enterprise, and industry.
They were not in search of easy lives or soft snaps. They
were accustomed to hard work and expected to continue
active. They had selected Belpre as the place for their
homes because it was adapted to agriculture, and it was
their purpose to develop an agricultural community. It
was not their intention to establish manufacturing beyond
what was needed for their own convenience. The years
which followed the return of families to their farms were
years of great activity. They cut down the giant forest
trees, removed the stumps, and prepared the land for cul-
tivation. They built larger and more permanent homes
and such buildings as were required for their more exten-
sive farming. They were also obliged to increase their
stock raising which had been neglected by the danger of
Indian attacks, also to raise horses of which there were
very few in the town at the close of the war. There was
also the necessity of building roads and bridges, where
they had previously traveled in trails and forded the
streams. Such employments as these occupied the men
during the two decades after the Indian war. The women
were equally occupied, besides the increased labor in the
performance of domestic duties, from the smallness of their
cabins and lack of utensils and comveniences there was the
spinning of wool and flax, weaving it into cloth and mak-
ing garments for their increasing families. They must also
provide woolen blankets and linen sheets for beds and per-
form the many and constant duties of the household besides
giving constant encouragement, hopefulness and good cheer
to fathers, husbands, sons and brothers. In the construc-
tion of their buildinp-s there was no machine work. Every-
thing was hand make even to the nails hineres and door
latches. We are able to give a copy of a contract for the
construction of one of the earliest houses in what is now
Belpre, March 1, 1797.
Know all men by these presents: I, Johnson Cook,
carpenter and joiner, of Marietta do engage to cut and hew
the timber, and frame a house of forty-two feet in length
and thirty-feet in width, the lower story to be nine, ye upper
eight feet between joists and with a stoop all round the
house six feet wide, to finish the outside of the house com-
pleat, make and hang all the doors in the lower story, put
up the petitions, lay the lower and chamber floors, case the
windows, make the sashes and set the glass, and to lath
and plaster all the lower part of the house, — for Israel
Putnam of Bellepree, who is to find the materials for finish-
ing the house at the spot, and vittle the people while doing
it and for the labor to pay to Johnson, three hundred and
ninety-five dollars, the work to be done in six months, and
fifty dollars to be paid by the first of May, and one hundred
dollars by the first of July, and the remainder when the
work is done.
In witness whereof we have herein set our hands,
This was long known as the Benedict house and stood
on the river bank in front of the Cook house. It was very
much injured by the flood of 1884, and soon after demol-
During these years the farmers tested a considerable
variety of products such as cotton, upland rice and silk
worms. Considerable quantities of hemp and flax were
raised during those years. The hemp was used in the rope
works at Mareitta and the flax made into cloth as shown
by the record given by Dr. Hildreth in a previous chapter.
Quite a number of pioneers brought their families and
goods from the east by ox teams, and also drove some other
stock. Colonel Israel Putnam, Major Nathan Goodale, and
Benjamin Miles brought some choice varieties of stock.
Some of these were killed or stolen by Indians but what
remained were increased and valued for many years.
In a letter written to Dr. Hildreth several years later
Colonel Battelle says:
"I think sheep were introduced into Belpre by Grifiin
Greene Esq., who had a small flock given him by a friend
in Charlestown, Virginia in 1792 or 3. Cotton was raised
in very small quantities in our gardens, and was picked by
hand and spun into stocking yarn. Upland rice was also
planted in drills in our gardens but the red birds came in
for a large share of it. In 1795 a good cow could be pur-
chased for $25.00 though there were but few to be had,"
(We do not read that the price was raised on account of
"Merino Sheep were brought to Zanesville by Seth
Adams in the summer of 1805 and I think by Messrs. Fear-
ing and Oilman the same year."
The fruit trees planted in the early years grew rapidly
in the fertile soil and were grafted by scions from the choic-
est varieties known in the eastern states."
Mr. Thaddeus M. Harris made a tour into the territory-
west of the Alleghany mountains in 1805, and writes in his
journal concerning Belpre and its orchards as follows:
"The situation of Belpre is pleasant and beautiful.
The houses are built upon the high banks of the river which
opens a fine prospect. The upper settlement is opposite
the mouth of the Little Kanawha and a small town on the
Virginia shore. The middle settlement commands a view
of the elegant mansion and buildings of Mr. Blennerhassett
on an island of more than one hundred acres possessing all
the beauty of a well cultivated garden. In the upper and
lower settlements are some of the largest peach and apple
orchards I saw in the country. They flourish luxuriantly
and are already in bearing order. Interspersed among the
well inclosed and highly cultivated plains back of this
charming town they contribute to decorate and enrich the
The soil on these river terraces was fertile and crops
as well as fruit trees grew luxuriantly and before many
years the farms produced grain, vegetables, and fruit be-
yond what was needed for home consumption. At first
a market was found for this surplus on the passing boats ;
as these products increased flat boats were loaded and
floated down the river sometimes as far as New Orleans.
The peach trees began bearing within a very few
years and the fruit was larger and more abundant than in
later years. As this fruit was perishable and there were
no fast freight trains or cold storage warehouses, most of
the peaches were sent to market in a liquid state. Many
of the leading farmers had stills on their premises; they
were not moonshiners, for the era of high tariff on luxuries,
and prohibition laws had not arrived. "Belpre Peach
Brandy" became known and prized in the towns down the
river. Some of it also was consumed at home. At that
time nearly all classes of people used some form of alcholic
beverages. Even Clergymen had "refreshments" at eccle-
siastical gatherings, and in naming these luxuries Peach
Brandy was a little more refined than whisky. We do not
find accounts of excessive intoxication in Belpre in those
days, and in later years Belpre has become one of the most
emphatically prohibition towns in the state.
In 1795 Peregrene Foster established a ferry opposite
the mouth of the Little Kanawha, having obtained a fran-
chise from the State of Virginia.
This ferry continued under a succession of owners un-
til the autumn of 1918 and was a large asset to the business
and prosperity of Belpre and the farmers who did business
in Belpre and Parkersburg. The owners have always serv-
ed the interests of their patrons. After the construction
of the suspension bridge the ferry continued business for
several months until the Bridge Corporation purchased the
franchise and abandoned the ferry.
Only a few years after the building of the Benedict
house it was occupied as "Cook's Tavern" which for many
years was a stopping place for travelers who crossed the
ferry and were on their way to settlements farther west.
Belpre villages not only did not exist during these early
years; it was not even forseen as a future probability.
The subject of slavery was an important one, even
in those early years. A considerable number of the settlers
in that portion of southern Ohio, west of the Ohio Com-
panies purchase, were from slave states and desired to
bring slavery with them into Ohio.
When the Constitutional Convention met at Chillicothe
in 1802, notwithstanding the prohibition of slavery in the
northwest territory by the Ordinance of 1787, many of the
delegates desired to allow slavery in the new state at least
for a limited time, and President Jefferson was known to
favor that admission. The man who did more than any
other member of the Convention to defeat that movement
was Judge Ephraim Cutler of Washington County, the son
of Rev. Manassah Cutler, who secured the clause in the
Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery. He labored faith-
fully on Committee claiming that the prohibition was a
condition on which the land was purchased and the settle-
ment made and ought to be considered a perpetual compact,
and he succeeded in making this prohibition a part of the
constitution of Ohio. Had he failed in this effort and Ohio
been recognized as a slave state, even with a time limit, it is
probable the condition of slavery would have been contin-
ued. Had that been true no one can now tell what would
have been the result of the Civil War or the present con-
dition of the country. We should not forget the work of
men who served our state so faithfully in those formative
Judge Cutler was in the State Legislature for several
succeeding year and always an advocate of efficient school
laws and such legislation as promoted public improvements.
It is an interesting fact to be remembered that Judge Cut-
lers home on the Ohio river was within the limits of Belpre
township until the organization of Warren township in
1810 the latter township was named in honor of Gen.
Joseph Warren who perished in the memorable battle of
These were active years in the political history of the
Country. Conditions were changing from colonial govern-
ments, owing allegiance to the mother country, to those of
an independent republic. The amount of self control which
had been exercised by the colonies had in a measure pre-
pared them for a government of the people, for the people,
and by the people, and yet there were many things respect-
ing the new government which could only be learned by
The whole people were studying and discussing the
principles which were crystalizing into the platforms of
the great parties which have alternated, irregularly, ac-
cording to the decisions of the people, in controlling the
nation. The citizens of Belpre were intelligent students of
principles and current events and like their fellow citizens
in other places were divided in sentiment ; though a major-
ity were Federalists, the party of Washington and Ham-
CONDITIONS COMPARED WITH THE PRESENT.
It may be interesting to us and gratifying to our
curiosity to institute a comparison between the implements
and conveniences of the pioneers and those enjoyed at the
present time. Each of the men who landed at the mouth
of the Muskingum, April 7th, 1788, had an axe and a hoe
transported in the Company's wagons. There is no men-
tion of other tools, though other things were doubtless
brought by them and those who followed them during the
summer. It is probable each of the forty eight men brought
with him that universal yankee implement a pocket knife
in addition to his gun and a limited amount of ammunition.
Nearly all the farming tools at that time were made by
carpenters and blacksmiths and were comely or clumsy ac-
cording to the skill of these important mechanics. The
axes came into immediate use in cutting the forest trees
and a large portion of the land on which the first crop was
raised, was mellowed by hoes only, as plows could not be
conveniently used among the stumps and roots.
The first plows were rude wooden instruments, the
shares shaped by axes to which beams and handles were
fastened with wooden pins. It required the full strength
of the holder to keep these plowshares in the ground, and
often it was necessary for another to ride on the beam.
The soil was turned very imperfectly but the ground was
partly stirred and if they succeeded in making it look
"dirty" it was considered successful plowing. The harrow
was a triangular instrument in the form of the letter A,
with eleven teeth. At first these were made of hard wood
Most of the farm work was done by oxen and clumsy two
wheeled carts. In some cases the wheels were sections of
large logs or hewn into shape from wide planks. When the
soil had been stirred by plows or hoes, and imperfectly
mellowed by these rude harrows grain was sown broadcast
by hand. When matured it was reaped with hand sickles,
threshed with flails, winnowed by the wind, ground in
hand mills, later between milstones, baked before tne open
fire, later in brick ovens, and hard work created an appetite.
At the present time a farmer rides over his field on a
buggy plow, mellows the soil with quite a variety of im-
proved cultivators and harrows, the drill sows the seed, with
the fertilizer evenly in rows; the reaping and binding are
done by harvesters; it is threshed and winnowed by steam
power, ground between patent rollers and masticated with
In those days the farmer sheared the wool from the
sheep. His wife carded the wool by hand and spun it on
the old spinning wheel, by the music of which many of the
children of that day were lured to sleep. After this yarn had
been carefully dyed it was knit into honest woolen stock-
ings, or woven into the homespun web. This web was cut
and made into garments by the neighborhood tayloress who
went from house to house plying her trade, and even with
such garments the active boys often wore patches to cover
the rents. Flax and tow were spun by frugal housewives
and woven into linen for sheets, towels, and kerchiefs which
furnished the bridal outfit for many of our fore-mothers.
Now after shearing his sheep the farmer stores his
wool until he thinks there will be no increase in price when
it passes into the hands of "middle men." If these can com-
mand sufficient money or influence, and are skillful in pull-
ing wool over other peoples eyes, they will create "a corner"
to increase the price. The wool finally reaches the factory,
where it is carded, spun and woven by the busy fingers of
ingenious machines. The cloth is taken to other establish-
ments where it is cut into a great variety of garments which
are stitched together amid the clatter of scores of sewing
machines. The garments are distributed to retailers by
means of "drummers" and finally reach the men and boys,
who may not wear as many patches as the boys of a century
ago, but the cause of this is not because the cloth is stronger
or more endurable or the garments better made than in the
days of the pioneers.
Hides taken from domestic animals were tanned for
them by the nearest tanner and made into boots and shoes
by the itinerating shoe maker. Now by the aid of improv-
ed machinery 100 men in a factory can make as many shoes
in a day as 500 could by the old hand process.
Friction matches were not in general use until well into
the nineteenth century. The pioneer housewife preserved
her fire through the night by burying coals in the ashes.
If these were found to be entirely extinguished in the morn-
ing the best way to build her fire was to secure a pot of
coals from a neighbor. If for any reason this was imprac-
ticable fire was produced by what was called a tinder box
in which sparks, produced by the contact of steel and flint,
were dropped into highly inflammable matter. In other
cases a tow string was laid across the pan of a flint lock
musket, this string was ignited by the flashing of powder
and the string was used to kindle inflammable matter. If
the matrons of the present day could spend a week in one
of those pioneer kitchens they would realize how much we
owe to so small a thing as a friction match.
The first fires of the settlers were bonfires in the open,
where they heated water and cooked their first meals.
When their log cabins were built they were provided with
fire places and a few years later these were furnished with
iron cranes on which were hung the pots and kettles. Wood
was plenty and could be easily supplied in abundance.
Their bread, pies, beans, and meat were roasted before the
fire or in the ashes.
After cabins were erected they were usually provided
with brick ovens in which "fireless cookers" our fore-moth-
ers did their baking for half a century or until cook-stoves
came into general use. Only a very limited amount of
furniture was brought here by the settlers. Many of the
tables were made of a wide board or plank in which three
legs were inserted. Their chairs were stools made in a
similar way, with or without backs. Bed steads were at
first the ground, then elevated by slats extending from a
post to two sides of the room. Later a great improvement
was made in the rope bed stead of which the present gener-
ation know very little. Some very nice crockery was
brought on by pioneer of which a few specimens are still
preserved, but this was very limited. Wooden plates and
even spoons and forks were frequently used, though many
brought with them pewter spoons and iron forks. While
using the primative articles our ancestors were thankful
that they had so many comforts. As soon as they were
provided with tallow, candles (tallow dips) were their best
lights when these could not be secured pine knots were used
to give them cheer during the winter evenings, and many
an enterprising youth studied his lessons, or read books
from the library, lying prone before the fire place perhaps
often replenishing the fire with a fresh knot to increase the
light. In some of the first cabins oiled paper was used in-
stead of glass in the windows. Skins of animals were often
used for bed covers during the cold winter nights and dress-
ed deer skins were made into clothing for quite a number
of years. At the time which we are describing and for a
number of years later the people of Ohio had no gold or
steel pens, no iron safes, safe cabinets, or yale locks, no
circular, jig, or band saws, — no com shellers, butter work-
ers or sausage grinders, no automatic apple parers, cherry
pitters, or egg beaters, — no clothes wringers, incubators, or
fruit evaporators, — no condensed milk, canned goods, or
sugar trust, — no buterine, oleomargarine, or Standard Oil
Company, — no umbrellas, rubber goods, or vacuum cleaners,
no daily newspapers, dime novels; or natural gas, — steam
was just beginning to be known as a power and had hardly
commenced to be made useful, and a knowledge of electricity
was confined to experiments in a very few laboratories.
Travel was performed on foot, horseback, or in very rude
vehicles. Carriages with springs were unknown. In the
summer of 1788 two homesick young men walked from
Marietta to Boston in twenty-six days, which was con-
sidered a very quick trip ; the same summer Dr. Manassah
Cutler made a journey from Boston to Marietta most of the
way with horse and sulky and a month was required for
the journey each way. Now a person can eat dinner in
Belpre and dine in Boston on the evening of the following
day. As late as 1835 a Boston paper stated that a person
could travel from Boston to St. Louis, a distance of nineteen
hundred miles, all the way in a public conveyance, in fifteen
days. This was then considered a remarkable achievement
in the matter of travel. Now (1918) a person can travel
from Boston to St. Louis in thirty-six hours and enjoy
the conveniences of a first class hotel all the way without
leaving the train. A century ago we had no steamboats,
railways, or locomotives, — no ocean steamships, dread-
naughts, or submarines, — no telegraphs, telephones, or wire-
less telegraph, — no photographs, phonographs or pullman
cars, — no bicycles, automobiles, or aeroplanes, — no electric
lighting, trolley cars, or twenty story sky scrapers. There
might be added a multitude of improvements and conven-
iences which the minds of men had not even conceived a
century ago. A writer about the beginning of the nine-
teenth century stated that so great improvements had been
made in inventions during the eighteenth century that there
seemed but little to be left for future advance, and yet at
the close of the nineteenth century there was scarcely a
machine in use which was used at the beginning of the
century. We may now think that we have reached about
the acme of inventions and improvements but our descend-
ants a century hence will wonder as much at the crudeness
of our present civilization as we now do at the imperfections
of our ancestors of one hundred years ago.
In 1797, an Irish nobleman, by the name of Harman
Blennerhassett, settled on what has since been known as
Blennerhassett's Island. He was a gentleman of wealth
and culture who had married his niece, Miss Margaret Ag-
new, a beautiful and refined lady. The relatives were not
pleased with this marriage and to remain in their native
country meant for them family ostracism, which is suppos-
ed to have been the reason for their emigration to America.
After visiting some of the eastern states they crossed the
Alleghany mountains to Pittsburg and sailed down the
Ohio river to Marietta. They were so much pleased with
the country and the people that they decided to locate in
the vicinity. After examining some of the neighboring
hills with a view of erecting a castle on a hill top, like so
many in the Rhine valley, they finally abandoned that plan
and purchased the eastern half of the beautiful island op-
posite Belpre. Here they erected a stately mansion with
an apppropriate group of outbuildings, laid out pleasant
lawns and flower gardens, planted a large variety of fruit
and ornamental trees and prepared the land for cultivation.
They brought with them an extensive library with appara-
tus for scientific experiments. Also musical instruments
and works of art. They soon made their home and grounds
the most beautiful and costly in the valley. They found
their neighbors in Belpre both enterprising and intelligent
and very intimate social associations grew up between
them, which continued for about eight years. This was in
the early and formative period of our political history.
Aaron Burr was one of the most talented and ambitious
men of that period, and desired to reach the Presidency.
In 1801 he and Thomas Jefferson each had seventy-three
electoral votes. This threw the election into the House of
Representatives and on the thirtieth ballot Thomas Jeffer-
son was chosen president and Burr, Vice-President. In
1804 he was democratic candidate for governor of New
York, but v/as defeated and the same year he mortally
wounded Alexander Hamilton in a duel which brought to
him the most intense hatred from the friends of that gifted
Statesman, Though a dissapointed man he was still am-
bitious. In the Spring of 1805 after the close of his term
as Vice-President he made a tour down the valleys of the
Ohio and Mississippi rivers the object of which is given
by Judge William H. Safford as follows :t
(1) To ascertain the sentiment of the people of the
west upon the subject of a separation from the Atlantic
(2) To enlist recruits, and make arrangements for
a private expedition against Mexico and the Spanish pro-
vinces in the event of a war between the United States and
Spain, which at that time seemed inevitable.
(3) In the event of a failure of both of these meas-
ures, to purchase a tract of land of Baron Bastrop lying
in Louisiana on the Washita river. Upon this he contem-
plated the establishment of a colony of intelligent and
wealthy individuals where he might rear around him a
society remarkable for its refinement in civil and social life.
That each of these stunendous enternrises was deter-
mined on, is clearly inferable from the evidence afterwards
adduced against him."
He examined the ancient monuments at Marietta and,
in company with a friend, passed through the grounds of
the Island estate, although the family were absent at the
A correspondence followed between Mr. Burr and Mr.
Blennerhassett and this resulted in another visit of Mr.
Burr to the island in August, 1805. At that visit Mr. Burr
laid before his host plans for an expedition which must
have embraced some at least of the specifications already
quoted. Mr. Blennerhassett had sufl'icient confidence in his
distinguished guest to enlist himself and invest at least a
considerable part of his fortune in the enterprise, but it
also created the hope of large honor and wealth in the fu-
ture and it is also evident that Mrs. Blennerhassett entered
very heartily into the plan. The ostensible object of the
enterprise as given to the public, was the establishment of
a colony on the Washita river though at least some of the
adventurers enlisted with the understanding that it em-
braced a campaign against Mexico.
Almost immediately a contract was made with Joseph
-fBlennerbassett Papers Page 105.
Barker to construct, at his ship yard on the Muskingum,
fifteen large batteaux, with a total capacity of carrying
five hundred men. One of these was to be fitted with sev-
eral rooms to accommodate Mr. Blennerhassett's family;
also a keel boat sixty feet long to be loaded with munitions,
provisions, flour, whiskey, pork, and com meal which was
to be kiln dried so that it would be preserved in a warm
and moist climate. For these boats and provisions Mr.
Blennerhassett became responsible and he was to go down
the river with these boats in December. Other men and
supplies had already been provided for in Penn. and Mr.
Burr proceeded down the river to secure volunteers and
supplies in Kentucky.
The preparations were to embrace fifteen hundred
or two thousand armed men with corresponding supplies of
December 7 Comfort Tyler and Israel Taylor, in the
employ of Col. Burr, arrived at the island from Beaver,
Penn. with four boats and about thirty-two men. Only
eleven of the boats ordered at Marietta were completed
but orders were given to have these and the provisions sent
immediately and if any of the covers of boats were not
complete that work might be done as they floated down the
Meanwhile President Jefferson had been informed that
a military expedition was in preparation against the do-
minions of Spain, and on Nov. 27th he issued a message
warning all persons against participating in such criminal
enterprises and commanding all ofl^cers, civil and military,
to bring the offending persons to punishment. The matter
was also considered by Governor Tiffin of Ohio and the
Legislature, then in Session at Chillicothe, immediately
passed an act entitled "An act to prevent certain acts
hostile to the peace and tranquility of the ITnited States
within the jurisdiction of the State of Ohio."
Under this act Governor Tiffin ordered out the militia
in the adjoining territory, under command of Major Gen-
eral Buell with instruction to take possession of the boats
and stores not only in the Muskingum but also of all of a
suspicious character descending the Ohio. Under this or-
der the boats and provisions on the Muskingum and at Mar-
ietta were placed under the guard of the militia. Owing
to these orders a considerable number of volunteers aban-
doned the enterprise. Several young men at Belpre, who
desired to participate in the expedition and were ambitious
for adventure, resolved to make an effort to secure these
boats. One dark night they went to Marietta for that pur-
pose. While loosening the boats from the banks of the
Muskingum they were discovered by the militia and a some-
what ludicrous but bloodless scrimage followed in the dark-
ness; as a result the young men succeeded in getting one
of the boats into the Ohio river in which they floated down
to the island. Under the authority of the proclamation of
President Jeiferson the Militia of Wood County, Virginia
was called out and Dec. 10th Mr. Blennerhassett was in-
formed that Colonel Hugh Phelps was expected to proceed
to the island on the next day to take possession of the per-
sons, as well as of boats and stores. Alarmed by these
reports Mr. Blennerhassett and his followers resolved to
leave the island that night. Hasty preparations were made
and although the cold was intense, the flotilla with about
forty men and a considerable supply of arms and provis'
ions cut loose from the island about midnight and floated
down the river, expecting to receive additional recruits at
the mouth of the Cumberland river and to be led forward
in the enterprise by Aaron Burr. The Governor of Ken-
tucky had also been aroused by the proclamation of the
President and Mr. Burr was compelled to hasten his de-
parture so that the flotillas, when united, consisted of only
four boats. This flotilla proceeded down the Ohio and also
a considerable distance down the Mississippi but in the end
proved a complete failure. The men were scattered, Mr.
Burr and Mr. Blennerhassett were both arrested for treason
and a trial was held the next year before the Supreme
Court of the United States at Richmond, Virginia. The
trial was one of the most celebrated in the annals of that
Court. The result was an acquittal as the evidence was
not considered suflficient to convict them. Both men how-
ever suffered severely in the loss of property and reputation.
The Blennerhassett family never returned to their is-
land home. Later the propeHy was sold to pay debts and
the buildings were destroyed by fire. It seems to be the
verdict of historians that Mr. and Mrs. Blennerhassett were
captivated by the allurements of Aaron Burr. They were
made to believe that their endowments fitted them for
much larger things, than could be realized on their island
home, but that a state might be created in which they would
be leaders. Their property was involved and the enter-
prise inaugurated to gratify that ambition with no real in-
tention of any treasonable purposes against the government
As before stated the ostensible object of the expedi-
tion, as given to the public, was the establishment of a col-
ony on the Washita river.
It has been the opinion of historians from that time
to the present that something much more extensive than
this was contemplated by Aaron Burr. The reasons for
this opinion certainly seem very conclusive. One of these
is that the plan of preparation involved the enlistment of
fifteen hundred or two thousand men, armed and equipped
with implements of war, and provisions for a considerable
campaign in a warm, moist climate, with no preparations
for surveying, clearing, or cultivating land or for removing
or settling families.
Again Colonel Burr was a man of so large and so sel-
fish ambitions it is not thought likely that he would make
so large preparations for an enterprise which did not prom-
ise larger emoluments either of honor or wealth than could
be expected from a colony in a wilderness. Then, when
they feared arrest by the civil authorities, they did not
attempt to explain their real object, but hastened away se-
cretly. It was well known that the re])resentatives of Spain
had put forth strenuous efforts for nearly a score of years
to prevail upon the states bordering on the Mississippi
river to secede from the union and become a part of the
Spanish province of Florida, Many public men in these
states were in favor of that movement. Among these was
General James Wilkinson who, while holding a position in
the United States Army, had been for many years an agent
for Spain and received an annual stipend from that gov-
ernment. Subsequent revelations have provided abundant
evidence of the extent of his treasoii. It is known that
Burr was in secret consultation with Wilkinson on each of
his trips down the valley, and that he also held a cypher
correspondence with him. General Wilkinson so far turn-
ed States evidence that he was one of the principal witness-
es against Burr on the trial for treason.
No one will doubt that in giving his testimony he would
avoid all statements which would criminate himself. This
fact connected with the well known sentiment of many-
western politicians at that time may be one reason why
the verdict of "not guilty" was rendered at the trial of
In a letter written by Mr. Blennerhassett a few years
later to Governor Alston, a son-in-law of Colonel Burr,
and a partner in the enterprise he speaks of making known
the facts "relative to Mr. Burrs designs against New Or-
leans and Mexico." These words so far confirm the evi-
dence already mentioned that they seem to justify the con-
clusion that Col. Burr contemplated a conquest of the
Spanish Floridas, or uniting with them the western States
in a new nation, or a conquest of Mexico, or perhaps in
case of a war with Spain, which was at that time thought
imminent, the accomplishment of both schemes and the
founding of a great Southern Empire under the leadership
of Burr, Blennerhassett, and Wilkinson. While this en-
terprise and its results are only remotely related to the
history of Belpre a considerable number of young men from
Bclpre enlisted in the expedition and, owing to the locality,
the mere mention of Belpre suggests to many minds the
account of Mr. Blennerhassett.
At the time there was a ludicrous as well as a serious
side to the affair which gave rise to certain parodies in
the newspapers as well as practical jokes on the militia.
Thinking other boats laden with men, arms, or provisions
might come down the river a guard was stationed at the
foot of Greene Street in Marietta with a loaded cannon.
One dark night, when the river was nearly closed with ice,
a light was seen slowly moving down the river among the
ice cakes. This was carefully watched and when opposite
the guard house a challenge was given in most approved
nautical terms. This was repeated three times and no re-
sponse having been made a torch was applied to the six
pounder and immediately the surrounding hills reechoed
the sound. This arroused the sleeping citizens in all the
region, who supposed the war was actually begun, and
rushed out in all conditions of dress to learn what was the
occasion for the alarm. Next morning an old boat was
found lodged in the ice in which were the remains of a fire
which had been kindled in it the previous night.
War of 1812.
jT r^i ^T is the verdict of historians that the war with
% Jm^ ^ Great Britain, usually denominated the War of
^^^ ^ 1812, was justified, that is according to the
--^^^^s^— worlds standard of justification at that time.
There was a strong party in the United States opposed to
this war. Great Britain had acknowledged our independ-
ence, but since her politicians had previously controlled
the colonists it was hard for them to surrender all their
dictation. Their ofllcers impressed our seamen, searched
our ships on the seas, made many and vexatious aggressions
on our commerce, and, perhaps most inexcusable of all in-
cited the Indians to make depredations on our frontier.
This latter was probably from a desire to secure possession
of what was then known as the North West Territory.
For such reasons as these war was declared under the
administration of James Madison, June 18, 1812. The
Democratic party was the war party. The Federalists de-
sired as strongly as the Democrats that the wrongs perpe-
trated by Great Britain should be corrected but they be-
lieved that this could be done by diplomacy without resort
to arms. The majority of the people in Washington Coun-
ty were Federalists, the party of Washington, and were
not very much interested in carrying on the war; they
were also too far from the scenes of action to have their
enthusiasm very much aroused. It was only twenty-three
years after the first log house was erected in Belpre, and
the number of inhabitants was still small. Requisitions
were made on all parts of the country for men and for cer-
tain political reasons it was thought best in Belpre that
these men should be secured by draft rather than by volun-
tary enlistments. Belpre furnished her quota of men who
performed faithful and loyal service. The sentiment of
Belpre people at that time is well described in a letter
written by Col. John Stone to Anselm T. Nye many years
later and copied in Williams History of Washington Coun-
ty, page 134, as follows: "The patriotism of Belpre did
not prompt her citizens to deeds of peril on the Canada line.
The people believed the government could have made a
treaty if it had taken the right course. The Berlin and
Milan decrees of Napoleon were as obnoxious as the Brit-
ish orders in Council, and to declare war against one gov-
ernment and not the other was to discriminate. If war
was the remedy to maintain our rights — we were in every
"The blundering management of the war in the north-
west gave cause for the severest criticism, and perhaps
gave rise to the idea of the necessity of a Silver Grey or-
ganization. Col. Nathaniel Cushing had command of a
company of Silver Greys, whose valor had been tried in
their youth, who had seen Indians since, heard the war
whoop, and helped to bury the scalped dead, but the men
who threw up their caps for the war of 1812 looked upon
these old soldiers as tories and sometimes called them so.
Perhaps I might mention some circumstances to show who
they were, and how well they bore the appellation, not ac-
cepted it, and how they stood when a tory was an enemy
to his country. There was some slipping away from the
legal call of the Military Officers, but enough were found
to fill the drafts as they occurred. All who went into the
service were given an honorable discharge. There were a
great m.any sick and ailing when the order for a draft was
announced so much so that old Mr. Allen who was ferryman
at the mouth of Little Hocking, and who was commonly
known as Old Charon said: "Nearly all the drafted men
profaned themselves sick."
"Edward B. Dana and Bial Steadman were Captains
in the regiment of Washington County militia as then or-
ganized. They were citizens of Belpre and Belpre at that
time contained double its present territory. The bounds
of military companies were fixed by regimental boards of
officers. Hence Captain Dana's company, though called a
Belpre company, extended into Warren while Captain Stead-
man's Company was all in Belpre, and within the bounds
of these two companies were formed the Silver Greys. 1
am not aware that either Captain E. B. Dana or Captain
Bial Steadman performed any other service than to call
out the requisition made on their companies and other du-
ties connected with that service. I was a corporal in Cap-
tain Dana's company, and performed the duty of notifying
the drafted men in tlie drait of 1813. It was the duty of
commanders of companies, when they received a requisi-
tion to draft the number of men called for and forward
them to the place of rendezvous, they were not authorized
to use compulsion. If the drafted man did not go or fur-
nish a substitute he was subject to a fine.
Officers were detailed in the order of the dates of their
commissions and took with them their non commissioned
officers governed by a rule fixed by law. A suit grew out
of the drafting of an apprentice who never returned to ser-
vice, in which case the aggrieved master, a strong advocate
of the war, sought his remedy in court against the Captain
and paid the costs in "Goodno vs. Bial Steadman, on appeal
from William Brownings docket." Whether he cursed the
war I do not know, but have no doubt he cursed his luck
and the Captain too.
Omitting all dates, Quartermaster or Contractor Craig
purchased a large number of ox teams in Belpre and vi-
cinity and forwarded them to head quarters under his
nephew, W. B. Putnam, Wagonmasters, Absalom Misner
Cummings and Porter, who performed their duties in a
satisfactory manner and were honorably discharged. The
drafted men who served were Elam Frost, Nehemiah Morse,
Lemuel Cooper and Samuel Barkley. The men who hired
substitutes were Jarvis Burrough, William Burroughs, and
I think George Dana and Joseph Dilley. The substitutes
were Joel Bennet, Curtis, and Hinman. Pardon Cook serv-
ed in the Company commanded by Captain Charles Devol.
Berkley and others from Belpre were in Captain John
Thornilley's company. Captain Dana's Company extended
into Warren and Cooper may have been a citizen of that
township at the time. To confirm the statement that Bel-
pre people were called tories a drafted man said : "When
spoken to, I was always called tory except at roll call.' "
Concerning the sentiment of the people of Washing-
ton County at that time James Lawton of Barlow wrote.
"In regard to the war of 1812 a large class of the then
voters thought it unnecessary and impolitic. My father*
and most of his neighbors took that view of it. Of course
we rejoiced at our victories, but farther than that took
but little interest in it. Doubtless the case was difi"erent
in some quarters and many prominent citizens participated
in it, but with comparatively few exceptions, it was not
the case here." Notwithstanding their political prefer-
ences the good people of Belpre met the requirements of
their rulers and loyally bore their share in the burdens of
It was greatly to the credit of the people of Belpre
that, notwithstanding the prevailing sentiment, they re-
spected every call of the government and performed their
duties with faithful loyalty. This war continued for two
and one-half years and the most important engagement
was that of New Orleans, Jan, 8th, 1815 which was after
the treaty of Ghent, but the news of that treaty had not
reached this Country. Of that battle Edward Everett
Hale says: "This Battle made the fame of Andrew Jack-
son. It made him President of the United States. It
gave the Nation a just confidence in its power for war,
properly led, and it had much to do with the birth of na-
tional feeling which is the great and important result of
the war of 1812. But it took place fifteen days after the
treaty of peace had been signed at Ghent."
It may be interesting to us now at the close of the
greatest war in human history to give an account of the
uniform worn and rations furnished to a United States
Army a century ago. "The regulation coat was a "swallow
tail" made of dark blue cloth ; faced and trimed with buff,
buttons of white metal with U. S. A. on them; the hat a
tall bell crowned affair with no brim except a small visor
in front ; to this was added a stock for the neck of polished
leather wide enough to fit up snug under the chin.
In 1813 Timothy Buell, Esq. of Marietta entered into
a contract to furnish rations to the soldiers in Washington
County as follows: "Fifteen cents was to be paid for each
complete daily ration consisting of eighteen ounces of bread
or flour ; one and one quarter pounds of beef or three quar-
ters of a pound of salt pork; one gill of Rum, whiskey, or
brandy; at the rate of two quarts of salt, four quarts of
vinegar, and one and one half pounds of candles to each
one hundred rations.
The uniform now used fits the body quite closely and
is of a color not easily discernable in the smoke of battle
and the cost is very miicli increased. Instead of a daily
allowance of Alcoholic liquor it is now a criminal offense
to furnish such liquor to our soldiers in training? camps or
in active service, showing a marked change in sentiment,
during the Century.
After the War of 1812
jr fxy "Hj.HE scenes of active operations during the war
y '4 »! of 1812 were a considerable distance away and
"^x t^ ^® ^^ have seen only a few men from this vi-
^^^^^:~ cinity were drafted into service so that the war
itself had only a slight effect on the business of Belpre.
From what has already been stated we may infer that the
sale of a considerable number of oxen to the government
must have been of some advantage to the farmers. At the
close of the war (1815) most of the arable lands had been
cleared of forest trees and prepared for cultivation, and
the farms were well stocked with domestic animals. Soon
after this considerable attention was paid to dairying and
we have found the statement that about 1825, Belpre Cheese
was as well known in the towns down the river as "West-
ern Reserve" and "New York Cream" were in later years.
Mention has already been made of the introduction
of sheep, and, quite early, wool became a staple product.
At one time fine Merino wool was sold for a dollar a pound.
Sheep are very timid, with very little ability to defend
themselves, and nearly all wild animals are their enemies.
During those years the farmers lost many sheep through
the depredations of these animals, especially wolves, which
were quite abundant in the surrounding forests. Quite
large bounties were given by the State for the killing of
wolves and in some cases these were considerably in-
creased by the authorities of the townships. In 1821 an ex-
tensive circus (Wolf) hunt was inaugurated which may
be understood by the following call issued in a Marietta
paper at the time :
"Notice is hereby given that there is to be a circus
hunt on the head waters of the big and little west branches
of Little Hocking on Thursday Feb. 8th, 1821. It is to be
hoped that all those who feel able to perform the march of
four or five miles, both men and boys, will appear on the
ground on Wednesday, Feb. 7th, prepared to camp out for
the night. The inhabitants of Warren, Belpre, and De-
catur will assemble at or noar ]\Ir. Halls, on the Watertown
road. Those of Wesley, Iiaiiow, etc. will form the north
line from John Smiths, west to the road leading from tho
Ohio to Federal Creek, so as to intersect the said road about
six miles from the Ohio. Those of Newbury will form on
said Federal Creek road.
It is expected that all who have horns or conch shells
will bring them. No dogs to be brought on the ground.
As it is the express object of this hunt to kill wolves and
panthers it is hoped that those who cannot refrain from
killing deer will leave their guns at home.
WALTER CURTIS, Newbury.
AMOS DUNHAM, Warren.
WILLIAM JOHNSON, Decatur.
THADEUS POND, Barlow.
MILLER CLARK, Belpre.
O. R. LORING, Belpre.
W. P. PUTNAM, Belpre.
JOHN STONE, Belpre.
It appears from this list that Belpre farmers had a
large interest in this hunt. Later accounts report that
this hunt was a failure on account of a lack of system in
the arrangements. Wolves, bears and panthers were seen
in various places but none were killed. In 1823 twenty-
four sheep were killed in Belpre which indicates the danger
of the flocks from these animals. In some cases larger
bounties were offered for the scalps of wolves that there
might be larger incentive to hunt them, for wolves had no
value for food like deer and bears. Through these bounties
and a diligent war by the farmers these pests were finally
Mention has been made in a previous chapter of the
introduction of improved breeds of stock by the pioneers,
and these efforts were continued both to improve the cattle
and to introduce the best methods of farming. This may
be learned from premiums given at the first Annual Fair
of the Washington County Agricultural Society in 1826.
John Stone Second best Merino Ram $1.00; John
Stone Best Cow $10.00; George Dana Second largest Hog,
$1.00 ; John Stone for the largest crop of Corn, one Winans
patent plow $10.00.
This was probably an iron plow as these were intro-
duced about that time to succeed the clumsy wooden im-
plements previously used. In the Fairs of subsequent years
Belpre farmers secured their proportion of premiums.
From that time to the present improved farming
utensils have been introduced nearly every year. With
these improvements one man can easily accomplish as much
as could be done by two or three of the pioneers a century
During the years previous to the construction of Rail
roads there was considerable travel between the Ohio Val-
ley and the Atlantic States by Stage Coaches, through
Pennsylvania and Virginia and certain kinds of freight was
transported in wagons but the principal means of trans-
portation was on the rivers. Flat boats, built here, were
loaded with the products of the farms and forests, and
floated down the rivers often as far as New Orleans. In
1823 Captain Daniel Greene took two flat boats loaded with
flour from Marietta to New Orleans in twenty-two days,
which was at that time considered a quick trip.
Lumber was much more abundant here than at New
Orleans, and, owing to the difficulty of pushing the boats
against the current, they were usually sold there. At that
time flat boats carried flour, corn, butter, cheese, apples,
lumber, and peach brandy which was then considered by
most of the people as legitimate an article of traffic as the
peaches from which it was made.
In Dr. S. P. Hildreths history given in previous chap-
ters we find mention of the scarcity of salt during the early
years and also an account of the discovery of a salt spring
in the Scioto valley by a company of Belpre men. During
a considerable number of years most of the salt used in
this part of the State was made from the water of that
and neighboring springs.
An article appeared in a local paper in 1819 by a
person under the name "Fair Play" in which it was stated
that certain persons had purchased the complete output
of the Kanawha Mills and raised the price of salt to two
dollars per bushel" and the writer asks the "General As-
sembly of the State to interfere and protect the public
against there ''pests of society," From this statement we
learn that the selfish greed of monopolists was known here
almost a century ago and not inappropriately named by
It is also interesting to be able to record that the dis-
covery of another spring in the Muskingum valley about
that time, and the establishment of a mill there prevented
these "pests of society" from enjoying their monopoly for
any considerable time.
Quite early in the history of Belpre some of the farm-
ers turned their attention to the raising of stock. Sheep,
as already stated were raised for their wool, and horned
cattle for market. Some were butchered and the meat sold
to river boats, and others were taken on the boats to towns
farther down the river. During the first four decades of
the nineteenth century many cattle were taken in droves
through Virginia and over the mountains to eastern Mary-
land and Pennsylvania.
As a result of our excellent railroad systems, fat cattle
can be loaded on cars at Belpre and within forty-eight
hours be offered in the markets of Washington, Baltimore,
and Philadelphia, as prime beef. In the early years before
the era of Railroads, four or five weeks were required to
take a drove of cattle to these eastern markets including
many vicissitudes and dangers of loss, and when they ar-
rived at their destination several weeks of refattening
were necessary before they would produce "prime beef."
During the journey cattle must be fed each day, some time
on farms at considerable expense, at other times they
could feed on unoccupied land or brouse in the forest, but
then they were liable to eat poison plants which would cause
sickness and some times death. A few extracts from the
Diary kept by Judge Ephraim Cutler on such a journey
will reveal to us the experiences of those days.
Tuesday July 25, 1809 — Started with eighty-six head
of cattle and crossed the Ohio six miles from Marietta,
and drove on to Charles Ferrys place.
July .5 — Drove to Hushers, twenty-six miles.
July 27 — Lost twenty head of cattle in the woods.
Drive the remainder to WebstCiS where my drove joins
that of Browning and Dana (two Belpre men) and goes
on. Buy two steers of Husher for thirty two dollars. Re-
turn after the lost cattle find eighteen head and get them
July 28 — Still hunt but without success, for the two
missing steers; then go on to Nathan Davis, with the
July 29 — Drive to within three miles of Clarksburg.
Find on the way a steer which Charles, who went on with
the drove had lost.
July 30 — One of my oxen very sick from eating laurel,
leave him and start on. Soon another very sick, and leave
him at Copelands. A little beyond Simpsons Creek I lose
again the whole of my cattle (in the underbrush) and hunt
for them till sunset when I find sixteen and soon after the
other one. Stay all night at Devols. A merry old fellow.
July 31 — At Plummer's, find another sick steer and
leave him at Johnsons. Go on to Gauleys where I overtake
Aug 1 — Drive to Thomas, on Cheat river, and leave a
Aug. 2. — Drive to Johnson's on Big Yough.
Aug. 3. — Another steer sick. Divide our cattle (from
Brownings and Dana's) and drive to the Glades, near
Aug. 4 — Discharge two hands. After salting the cattle
leave them in pasture in Charles' care and go on to West-
ernport and stay all night at Davis. The drove continued
their way with similar experiences and reached Hagars-
town, Maryland, Aug. 20th and York Pennsylvania Sept.
Cattle were sold a few at a time in the various towns
as they passed. In some cases the sick steers left behind
recovered and were found on the drivers return, in other
cases they died or disappeared. Such trips were not very
lucrative but a small profit usually remained and the avails
were expended in another drove, and the farmers were en-
couraged to improve and increase their herds.
The Little Hocking river, or creek, is only a small
stream but in its wanderings in the north west part of
Belpre tov^'nshiii a considerable number of bridges are
necessary in order to render efficient our system of high-
The crossing near the mouth of the stream is a diffi-
cult one to maintain because so much affected by the con-
ditions of the Ohio river. The following account of this
crossing is found in Williams History of Washington Coun-
"During the early years the Little Hocking was forded
near its mouth. This was very inconvenient and danger-
ous, and impossible in high water. In 1804 the citizens
of Belpre appointed Dr. Leonard Jewett, Truman Guthrie,
and Benjamin Miles a committee to petition the County
Commissioners for a grant of $300 to assist in building a
bridp^e. The money was granted and the bridge built, but
the timbers used were too heavy and the strength was im-
paired to such an extent that it became unsafe. There was
a commonly received story that the last crossing was made
by a drove of cattle on the run." Mrs. Laura Curtis Pres-
ton in her history of Newbury says: "After the abandon-
ment of the bridge a ferry was operated for many years by
Reuben Allen. Still later a toll bridge was built and used
for a number of years. This was wrecked by the flood
of 1884. After this the present iron bridge was built,
located higher up the stream than the old bridge. Some
of the timbers of the old bridge rested on the large stone
to which George Washington referred in his journal of a
journey down the Ohio. The nlnces cut in the stone for the
timbers are still visible. One pier of the toll bridge also
rested on this stone which should be called Washington's
The moving of a large building was an important
episode in the monotonous life of a rural community in
early days, and an account of it is worthy of a place in
THE MOVING OF CAPTAIN STONE'S HOUSE.
The large frame house on the Stone farm just west of
the village was built in 1799 and is the oldest house now
standing in Belpre. This and the Putnam house built one
year later (1800) are good examples of the better farm
houses of New England at the time of the Revolution.
The dimensions of the house are 30 x 40 feet it is two stories
high with eight large rooms and two spacious halls. At
the time it was built there were no machines to furnish
lumber ready dressed, with frames, doors and sash, pre-
nared to put in plnce. The frame consisted of heavy tim-
bers hewed, framed, and mortised by hand and held togeth-
er by strong wooden pins. The siding was hand planed,
the shingles hand shaved, and nails hand made. Origin-
ally there were large fire places, one large enough to hold
a logr eight feet long. These have been superseded by other
appliances for heating but the old sash are retained and the
bVht still shines through panes of glass eiq-ht bv ten inches.
The old brick oven is no longer used but is still in place.
This house was built on the river bank near the site of the
old fort, but on account of the liberties the Ohio River
sometimes took of entering uninvited and extending the
calls beyond courteous limits, Col. Jack (John) Stone (son
of Jonathan) thousrh it wise to place the house on higher
ground, and this was accomplished b^^ what was known as
a "movino- bee* one of the wavs in whirh neic»-hbors mani-
fested their mutual helpfulness. The method employed is
not very much in use at the present time but was the best
then available in a country town. Two or three long tim-
bers were secured, hewed on top but on the bottom left in
the natural state these were securely fastened under the
sills and extended a few feet beyond the building. To the
end of each of these runners was attached a long row of
oxen fastened to the house and to each other: rollers were
usually placed under the runners to facilitate the movement.
In this case about fifty yokes of oxen were used brought
together from Washington County, Wood County, Virgin-
ia, and a few from Morgan County, Ohio. This event oc-
curred in June, 1825 and was a gala day long remembered
in Belpre the wives of the farmers came with their hus-
bands and furnished a bountiful picnic dinner. This work
was all accomplished in one day, the house was moved about
four hundred yards, and roachod the place prepared for it
about sunset. Wlien the work was accomplished such a
shout arose as is seldom heard. The old house still stands
and is occupied by descendants of the builder.
From experience at similar movinprs the writer would
venture the opinion that several blacksmiths in the vicinity
had applications to mend log chains soon alter this event.
A war between the United States and Mexico com-
menced in 1S1(), under the administration of James K.
Polk, and continued nearly two years. This war was caus-
ed by events that occurred in connection with the annexa-
tion of Texas as a part of the United States and its en-
rollment as our thirty-first state. The contest between the
North and South on the subject of slavery was even then
becoming bitter, and Southern politicians desired Texas as
an additional slave state, and also to increase their power
by securing additional territory from Mexico. The resist-
ance by Mexico to these efforts led to the war. This was
opposed by most of the people in the northern states and
only a comparatively small number of vsoldiers enlisted from
these states. We have found little evidence of interest in
this war by the Belpre people. One young man, Andrew
Colville. enlisted, and perhaps some others. Colonel Charles
H. Broup-h, a brother of Ohio's celebrated war Governor,
born in Belpre. was in command of the Fourth U. S. Regi-
ment during the war. By a comparison of dates we find
that the Kidnapping case described in the following chap-
ter occurred while the questions which led to this war were
under discussion throughout the country. This will help
explain why the war did not receive a hearty support in
Belpre. The "Irrepressible Conflict" had already commenc-
ed and thoughtful men already were beginning to see
that a "country could not very long continue part free and
The frames of nearly all buildings erected during this
period were made of heavy hewn timbers, and the raisings
of these frames were occasions for the gathering of a large
number of men for a "raising bee." When a "bent" of
timbers at one end of the building had been raised to its
place and temporarily secured, one or two sprightly and
level headed young men mounted it and fastened the tim-
bers between this and the next bent with strong wooden
pins. This process was continued until all the bents were
securely fastened together. Then the young men mounted
the ridge pole and pinned to it the rafters. There were
usually only a few young men with nerves sufficiently steady
to do this part of the work. On such occasions "refresh-
ments" were usually served often quite freely, and if these
were passed too early in the day it was sometime difficult
to get the last part of the work done properly.
THE TEMPERANCE REFORM.
In the early years of the nineteenth century the use
of intoxicating liquors in some form was very common
among all classes of people in our country. In the descrip-
tion of social gatherings at that time the mention of re-
freshments usually included alcoholic beverages. We have
learned that the settlers in Belpre were characterized by
"religion and morality" and these characteristics were per-
petuated by their descendants. Dr. Benjamin Rush pub-
lished his "Enquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits upon
the Human System" in 1785. This may be called the be-
ginning of the modern temperance movement.
During the next forty years the work was mostly spor-
adic and individual. In 1825 "The American Society for
the Promotion of Temperance" was organized and about
that time the attention of good people in Belpre was called
to the subject. Though in earlier years Peach Brandy
had been distilled here some of the people were ready to
consider and adopt this movement. We are informed by
Mrs. Laura Curtis Preston, in her "History of Newbury"
that "Mr. Erastus Guthrie was the first man in Washington
County to refuse to furnish Whisky in the harvest f^eld;
his neighbors thought him presumptuous, and that he could
not secure men to work without it, but he had enough of
his mothers Huguenot blood to persist in what he thought
was right and to carry out his determined policy." We
find also the names of the following gentlemen who adopted
a simJlar practice about the same time. Daniel Goss, Perley
and William P. Howe, George Dana, Sen and 0. R. Loring,
and there is reason to conclude that others were equally
prompt in this work. What is known in this country as the
"Wasingtonian Temperance Movement" commenced about
1840 and resulted in much good, but the people of Belpre
were in the work even earlier than that. It was the custom
in earlier years when neighbors gathered for a "Raising
Bee" to lubricate them freely with Whisky, but the senti-
ment of the Christian men in Belpre was so far advanced
that when the frame of the Methodist Meeting House in
Rockland was raised in 1832 no ardent spirits were provid-
ed. This is said to have been the first frame so raised in
Washington County but the work was well done and has
remained to the present time and during all these years
the worshippers in that building have been among the most
zealous and active advocates of total abstinance from all
In Feb. 1837 under the pastoral leadership of Dr. Addi-
son Kingsbury the Congregational church appointed a com-
mittee to consider the propriety of making total abstinance
from all intoxicating beverages a requisition for church
membership. November 23 of the same year the church
passed the following: "Resolved, That while this church
deems it inexpedient to require total abstinance from ardent
spirits as a condition of membershin we exp^^ess our deep
conviction of the duty of every member to abstain entirely
from the use of all such liquors as a beverage.
Resolved, Further, that the above resolution together
with the rules in practice be read in our church meetings
once in six months." At a meeting Feb. 12, 1845 the church
discussed the question of using only unfermented grape
juice at the sacrament of the Lords Supper. We have not
found when this decision was made by vote, but only un-
fermented wine has been used for many years. We have
reason to think the members of the Universalist and Metho-
dist churches were as advanced in practice as their Congre-
gational brethren. This is more noticeable because that
was before the days of prohibition laws or constitutional
amendments. At that time there were many intelligent
and influential citizens who advocated a temperate use of
alcohol instead of total abstinance, and many eminent di-
vines were not willing to substitute grape juice for wine at
In 1842 Dyar Burgess, at the time preaching in the
Congregational church wrote.
"But what is more characteristic of Belpre is that they
carry forward the temperance enterprise under the convic-
tion that temperance is the "fruit of the Spirit" and that it
is to their honor to come up to "the help of the Lord against
the mighty" accordingly their labors are yet unremitted and
God smiles upon their endeavors."
In a letter written by Mary W. Dana to her sister in
1840 we find the following: "Father is going out to Mr.
Goss to help him raise a temperance pole. Don't you think
that is doing pretty well. The people are beginning to be
aroused in the cause of temperance, and I consider that I
have made a pretty good beginning, for next Monday com-
pletes my months abstinance from tea and coffee." This
would indicate that this young lady and probably others
with her had abstained from tea and coffee to aid the
A few months later the same lady wrote "The people
of Belpre are considerably engaged in the cause of tem-
perance and hold monthly meetings; father (George Dana,
Sen.) speaks more than any body else, and I tell you he
makes the house ring with his voice. There is a County
Temperance Society which will hold a meeting in April.
Father is president of the Society."
Major F. H. Loring told the writer that at a meeting
in the old brick meeting house when a boy he heard Mr.
George Dana say of that early movement: "The people of
Belpre took hold of the temperance work with an iron
The following is a copy of a pledge circulated in 1840
by Mary W. Dana and Miss C. Browning.
"TEETOTAL TEMPERANCE PLEDGE"
(For those ten or more years of age)
We, the undersigned do hereby pledge ourselves to use
no intoxicating drinks whatever. Believing it to be a
source of much misery and ruinous to all who make use of
it we therefore consider it a deadly poison and are de-
termined to abandon the use of all intoxicating liquors here-
after and forever. We cordially invite all the young per-
sons of this neighborhood to sign this pledge and strictly
live up to all things herein inserted.
Charles G. Sargeant
D. B. Linn
Mary W. Dana
0. M. Russell
S. C. Gilbert
A. C. Ames
Great credit is due to those who so ably carried for-
ward their work during those early years. These efforts
had an abiding effect for good, not only on the young
people then living, but from that time to the present Bel-
pre, both in township and village, has been one of the lead-
ing temperance communities in the State. There has not
been a saloon within the limits of the township for a quar-
ter of a century and in all votes on the subject the "Drys"
have been about two-thirds of the whole.
SLAVERY AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
1^ ^^^ ....
^ A- NiFRICAN Slavery was introduced into Virginia m
» /^X ® 1620. The same year that the first settlement
^^-^ ^ was made in New England, at Plymouth, Mass.
-:^^L^ Slavery then existed in England and as a con-
sequence it was recognized as a legitimate institution in
all the American Colonies. In the northern colonies the
farms were generally small and were worked by the owners
themselves so there was little use for slaves. In Virginia,
and the colonies farther south, the settlers often took up
plantations of considerable size where they could advan-
tageously use slaves. As a result slavery soon disappeared
from the Northern Colonies but found a congenial soil in
the South where the labor of slaves was profitable to the
planters. At the time of the Revolutionary War leading
citizens both north and south considered that slavery was
morally wrong and therefore should be abolished.
One of the serious charges made against Great Britain
at that time was that she had introduced slavery into the
Colonies. It was then supposed that slavery must soon
disappear and perhaps for this reason this word does not
appear in our Constitution, though there is an evident allu-
sion to it in Article I, Section (9) which is as follows:
"The immigration or importation of such persons as
any of the States think proper to admit shall not be pro-
hibited by Congress prior to one thousand eight hundred
and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such im-
portations not exceeding ten dollars for each person."
This was the prevailing sentiment at that time among the
people as well as in the minds of the members of the Con-
stitutional Convention. And the importation of slaves was
prohibited by law after 1808. Slavery soon disappeared
from all the States north of what became known as "Mason
and Dixons Line," which was the South boundary of Penn-
sylvania and the Ohio River. The invention of the cotton
gin and the introduction of industries in the Southern
States which increased the profit of slave labor strengthen-
ed the institution of slavery. It is a very common char-
acteristic of human nature to find, if possible, some moral
justification for a practice which is pecuniarily profitable.
As years passed the people in the Southern States made
moral as well as commercial apologies for the continuation
of slavery, for example: "Negroes are not capable of car-
ing for themselves," "They are in a much better condition
as slaves here than in a wild state in Africa." "They will
be Christianized in this country."
Scripture was also quoted in justification of slavery.
It was claimed that slavery existed in New Testament
times as well as Old. It was not condemned by Christ
and justified by Paul when he sent the fugitive Onesimus
back to his Master Philemon, and, strange as it may now
seem, there were a few quite eminent clergymen in Puritan
New England who took a "South Side view of Slavery."
The Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery in the
Northwest Territory, but recognized the right of the Slave-
holder to recover his run away slave from the free States,
and a fugitive slave law was enacted by Congress in 1793
to aid the slave owner in recovering his slave who had used
his legs in leaving a Slave State. A half century later the
Anti-Slavery sentiment had so far increased in the free
States that Congress enacted another law in 1850, increas-
ing the power of the slave owner in securing his escaping
property. This law really increased the anti-slavery senti-
ment in the North and made the return of fugitives more
difficult. There is in the human soul an innate love of
liberty, although the slaves were kept in ignorance they
had a consciousness that they had a right to themselves.
This was increased during the early years of the nine-
teenth century by the fact that unscrupulous specula-
tors some times kidnapped free negroes in the border states
and, hastening with them into Slave States, sold them as
slaves. Although not allowed to learn to read, the slaves
became more intelligent from year to year through their
association with white people, and a desire for freedom was
aroused in the minds of many. Some fled to swamps and
forests where they lived in caves or rude huts and sub-
sisted by hunting, fishing, and such help as they could se-
cure from friends in night visits to plantations.
In later years, and especially after the abolition of
slavery in all British provinces it became known that there
were many in the free States who would befriend escap-
ing fugitives and assist them in gaining their freedom.
During the half century preceeding our Civil war many
thousands of slaves left the plantations of the South and
started on a pilgrimage with the North Star as their guide.
Some of these were run down by slave hunters who re-
ceived a reward for returning them to their masters,
many found homes in the Northern States, sometimes
under assumed names, while many others reached Canada
where they were legally free.
The process of escaping from Slavery in those days
came to be known as "The Underground Railroad." Those
who aided the fugitives were denominated conductors and
the homes where fugitives were fed and concealed were the
stations. The origin of this name has been given as fol-
lows.f "A certain negro escaped from a plantation in
Kentucky and was closely pursued by his master. At the
Ohio River the master was hindered for a short time in
securing a skiff but he found this in time to keep the fugi-
tive in sight as he swam the river and landed on the Ohio
side. Landing only a few minutes later than the fugitive
the master utterly failed to find any trace of him, and re-
marked "that nigger must have gone off on an underground
road." This name was so appropriate that it came into
quite general use in describing the escape of fugitives.
As the slaves became more intelligent and began to
understand the real meaning of slavery and the hopeless-
ness of a betterment of conditions, either for themselves
or their children, they began to regard the privilege of
owning themselves as worth a strenuous effort. This is
illustrated by an incident given by Prof. W. H. Siebert.f
"One day before the Civil War a bright looking negro
entered the sitting room of a country tavern in Canada.
'I suppose you are an escaped Slave' remarked a gentleman,
the negro acknowledged that he was. A by-stander re-
marked Ve are glad you got away, but you do not look
very poor, had you good clothes down South?' 'Suttenly
fOhio Archiloglcal Magazine; Vol. 4 Page 57.
|OMo Aiohlloglcal Magazine; Vol. 4 Page 47.
Sar, same clothes as my Massa;' 'You got a good many
whippings, eh?' 'Neber was whipped in my life, Sar.' 'Nev-
er thrashed?' 'Well I suppose you did not always get
enough to eat did you?' 'Always had enough gemmen,
neber went hungry.' 'What,' said the interrogator, 'good
clothes, no punishment, plenty to eat!' 'Now just think
of it' he added, 'addressing a group of loungers, this fellow
has left a position where he enjoyed all these privileges,
for an uncertainty.' 'Gemmen,' replied the darkey, 'All
Ise got to say respecting dem privileges is dat if any ob you
wants to avail hisself of dem, de situation am open.' "
It was the anti-Slavery sentiment of the people of the
North which secured the article in the Ordinance of 1787
prohibiting slavery in the Northwest Territory, and nearly
all the first settlers in Belpre were in accord with that
sentiment, though there may have been a few exceptions,
and more in the case of persons who came later, some from
In the History of Washington County by Prof. M. R.
Andrews we find the statement that during the first years
two slaves were reported to assessors in Belpre as personal
property, such a case was evidently illegal. In those early
years slaves were some times hired from their Masters by
Belpre farmers. It has been reported that some were em-
ployed from Mr. Blennerhassett. In the lower settlement
farmers sometimes "changed work" with their neighbors on
Washington's Bottom in Virginia, in which cases the farm-
ers worked themselves for their neighbors. In the return
the masters sat in the shade and their slaves did the work.
Such facts tended to arouse in the minds of the sturdy sons
of New England a warmer sympathy for the industrious
slaves than for their indolent masters; this made them
more willing to aid the negroes when they escaped across
The early anti-slavery sentiment in Belpre, and its
practical fruitage may be learned from the following found
among early documents.
"To all to whom these presents may come, Know ye,
That in October, 1817, I bought of George Neal of
Wood County, Virginia a black man named Harry Gray
Bartlette, and that he lived with me four years in Belpre,
Ohio, for which he was to have his freedom, and he is now
free both by my consent and by the laws of Ohio.
Given under my hand and seal, March, 1824.
This philanthropic gentlemen really loaned this slave
the means to purchase his freedom and allowed him to pay
the debt as a free laborer. There is evidence that there
were other similar cases during those early years.
As the years passed and the subject of slavery was
more generally discussed the jealousies between free and
slave States increased and it became more difficult for
philanthropists to secure the manumission of slaves by pur-
chase. There were very few negroes in Belpre previous
to the Civil War. The proximity to Slave territory made
it somewhat unsafe for the home of colored people and the
census of 1860 enumerated only four negroes in Belpre,
one male and three females. Many fugitives passed
through here in their efforts to gain freedom. There were
several reasons why Belpre became an important locality
on the underground railroad. As the country increased in
population and wealth, slave labor became much less
profitable in the northern tier of Slave states than in the
gulf states where cotton and sugar cane were staple pro-
ducts. As a result a large part of the pecuniary profits
from slavery in Virginia and Kentucky was derived from
breeding slaves and selling them to planters farther South.
Traders visited these States annually and sometimes often-
er to purchase young negroes for the Southern market.
These were taken in groups often chained together. This
traffic caused divisions in families and many hardships.
Colored parents were constantly in fear that sons and
daughters would be taken from them never to return. It
was easier for slaves from the border States to escape than
for those farther South and so Ohio was a middle ground
to be traveled in escaping from slavery to freedom.
Another significant fact was that soon after the Ohio
Company's settlement was made, the State of Virginia open-
ed a road from Alexandria to the mouth of the Little Kan-
awha River (Parkersburg) Mr. Thomas Wallcut went east
along this route as early as 1790.
This became one of the most extensively used roads
both for Stage Coaches and freight wagons, and continued
until the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
While the escape of fugitives must be secret the slaves
naturally continued near the traveled lines where they
might be helped on their way by other slaves. This
brought many to the river in the vicinity of Bel pre.
If now, we add a third fact, namely, that Belpre is
so related to the Ohio river that it has about fourteen miles
of river front, we may understand why many fugitives
crossed the river here. If all the adventures of escaping
Slaves who passed through Belpre could be written we
might find some cases as thrilling as the crossing of the
river on floating ice by Eliza, described by Mrs. Stow in
"Uncle Tom's Cabin." There were varieties of sentiment
among people on both sides of the river, the majority on the
Virginia side were pro-slavery. On the Ohio side were
some settlers from Virginia and a few who sympathized
with them but the majority of the people realy believed
that slavery was wrong; at the same time they accepted it
as an existing fact which they could not destroy and many
excellent people discouraged any agitation as tending to
create animosities between different portions of the coun-
try. This is shown by the records of a Social Circle in
Marietta in 1844 in which we find the following language :
"Most of the Circle were thorough Whigs, and at one table
might be heard anathamas hurled at Abolitionists, who,
in their zeal for the welfare of the poor slaves, have taken
this very course to bind their chains still closer and make
their hardships harder."
There were in Belpre as in nearly every Northern com-
munity some people who fully believed that slavery was a
sin which should be exposed and destroyed, and that it was
their duty to keep the matter agitated. Nearly all the
people of Belpre at that time were pleased to have slaves
escape from bondage but only a few were known as actively
employed on the underground railroad. Such people glor-
ied in the name of "Abolitionists" though it was given to
them by both Whigs and Loco Focos, as a term of reproach.
Among these were Capt. John and Mr. Jonathan Stone,
Perley Howe, Daniel Goss, Joseph Smith, T. B. Hibbard
and others in different parts of the town. There were a
few persons in Parkersburg who would lend their aid to
escaping fugitives and there was a free Negro woman
called Jennie living in a cabin near the mouth of the Little
Kanawha who was an efficient helper. The anti-slavery
sentiment gradually increased throughout the North until
the Civil War.
The Slaves for some distance back in Virginia came
to know the names of their friends in Belpre and how they
could be reached.
For many years there was a large cornfield on the
Stone farm in which many fugitives were hidden. Mr.
John M. Stone told the writer that when a lad he saw a
colored family with several young children hidden beside
a small pond in this field. The children were kept so quiet
during the day that they were not discovered. Meanwhile
during the day word was sent to a friend near Barlow
who came down during the night and took the fugitives on
to another station. In many cases fugitives were con-
cealed and fed for several days and when it was considered
safe to pass them along a gentleman would take them to a
well understood point where he would give a certain sign,
perhaps hoot like an owl or bark like a fox; when this
signal was answered, the fugitive was directed to remain
where he was until a friend came to his relief. The bene-
factor then started on his homeward journey. He had
neither seen nor spoken to any one and so had not made
himself liable to prosecution. A gentleman still living has
related to the writer how he once turned a would be slave
catcher on the wrong road at Lewis' Corner in Porterfield.
At one time two young ladies in Belpre, Melissa Stone and
Abbie Browning, took provisions across the Ohio in a skiff
and left them on a hill a little ways below Parkersburg for
a slave who was afterwards caught, flogged, and put in jail.
Mrs. Lydia L. Moore, a daughter of Capt. John Stone, still
living, remembers that Francis Stone used to bring negroes
to their house at night, whom her father would take in his
wagon to the house of a friend about six miles away, by
whom they were concealed and moved on towards Canada,
while he returned home the same night so that no one ex-
cept his family knew of his trip. She also remembers that
slaves were hidden in the attic of their house while hunters
were searching the barns, corn shocks and other places for
them. She also relates that she at one time attended an
entertainment in Parkersburg in the evening with other
young people, and a violent storm prevented them from re-
turning home that night. She was entertained at a certain
home and the fear that the host might ascertain that she
was a daughter of the hated abolitionist prevented her
sleeping at all during the night.
While the anti-slavery sentiment was increasing in
Belpre, the antipathy against abolitionists increased in Vir-
ginia. Captain John Stone did not cross the river to Park-
ersburg, at least in day light, for more than twenty years.
It has been said that a price was offered for him by certain
citizens of the baser sort who wished to treat him to a coat
of tar and feathers or to injure him in other ways.
On one occasion, about this time, when Mr. David
Putnam of Marietta landed from a steamboat on the wharf
in Parkersburg he was discovered and immediately assailed
by a mob of roughs. Being a strong, muscular man, he
defended himself with his fists until he fell backward into
the river. The Captain of the boat which he had just left,
rescued him and took him to a safer place.
In the year 1845 there was an occurrence in Belpre of
great significance to the whole country and which awaken-
ed very great interest. It illustrates the enmity between
the different sections of the country which continued to
increase until it culminated in the Civil War. We will here
quote substantially from an Article in the Centennial issue
of the Ohio State Journal by Dr. Frank P. Ames. This
seems to be based quite largely on the testimony of one
of the negroes who was present at the time:
"The Slaves of a planter by the name of Harwood,
living on Washington's Bottom, were prevailed upon by an
intinerating Baptist preacher by the name of Ronaine to
make an effort to gain their freedom in order to escape the
danger of being sold to a trader from down the river, of
which fate they were in constant fear. The plan, as ar-
ranged by Ronaine involved aid from friends on the Belpre
side of the river at a secluded spot in the narrows just
above the mouth of the Little Hocking. The company of
Slaves consisted of Daniel Partridge, Frederic Gay, his
wife Hannah, and three children, Mary (14), Harriet (6),
and Burnet (3) . These left Virginia in an old Pirogue and
landed on the Ohio side at two a. m. July 10, 1845.
Meanwhile Mr. Harwood had become acquainted with
the plot and his son, several nephews, and others secured
from Parkersburg, making in all about sixteen men, fully
armed, crossed the river and were hidden in the bushes,
when the other party landed. The five Ohioans took the
baggage of the slaves and directed Daniel and Fred to take
up the two children and follow them, with the wife and
daughter, up the bank to their homes. One of the white
men went directly up the steep bank with his load, while
the others took a diagonal course. When the first man
reached the road Daniel said he heard him exclaim "Don't
stab me; shoot me if you dare." He did not hear a word
from the Virginians lying in ambush till the Ohioans who
were leading them up the bank turned about and ran down
the river in hope to elude their pursuers in that direction.
Upon this movement of the escaping party, Daniel said he
soon heard the loud tramping of the Virginians in the road
above, running with all speed to head those who were en-
deavoring to flee from them. They ran in this way for
some distance when a party of Virginians poured down a
small ravine and came to the river ahead of them. Here a
scuffle took place, in which Daniel said two Ohioans were
taken. These, with the one taken in the road, made three
that were captured and taken over the river and lodged in
Parkersburg jail. When the Virginians came down to the
river and were endeavoring to secure the abolitionists the
slaves turned and ran down the river to make good their
escape. They were pursued by George Harwood, their
young master, and Perry Lewis a cousin. Loaded as the
Slaves were their pursuers gained upon them so fast that
Daniel was forced to drop Harriet whom he had carried in
his arms until then. Soon after he set down the child his
foot struck a rock which brought him to the ground, he
recovered as soon as possible and flung himself under the
roots of a large Sycamore tree upturned to the wind. Just
as he fell a pistol shot was fired by one of his pursuers,
probably to frighten rather than to injure. Ensconsed
under the roots of the old Sycamore his pursuers passed
without seeing him and soon after at the command of
young Harwood another pistol was fired at the fleeing
Slaves. This brought them to, and they were all brought
back in view of his place of retreat. When passing Har-
wood asked his Cousin Lewis if all the slaves were taken.
He replied that he believed they were. At this juncture
Daniel heard a cry from one of the Ohioans, "Don't choke
me so; if I have done anything against the laws of my
State I am willing to answer for it, but I am not willing to
be taken over the river to be tried by your bloody slave
laws." At this a voice, — the voice of Wyatt Lewis he
thinks,— was heard "Come along you D — d abolitionist and
get into the boat or I'll drag you into it — get up then on to
your feet you rascal and get into the boat." After this
Daniel says he heard nothing that he could distinctly make
out, except oaths and loud talk, till the marauding party of
brigands set up a shout of victory and fired a triumphal
volley from their rifles. Daniel now crept from his hiding
place and made his way up the bank to the road above.
There he soon fell in with friends, who took him to a house
and immediately started him North. Daniel says he is per-
fectly sure that George Harwood, his young master. Perry,
Frank and Wyatt Lewis his cousins, were among the six-
teen armed Virginians who boldly attacked six unarmed
citizens of Ohio in the dead of night while these citizens
were engaged in the discharge of what they considered
their Christian duty.
The three men captured were Daniel Garner, Creigh-
ton Loraine. and Mordacai Thomas, two escaped with Mr.
Romaine, Titus Shotwell and Burdon Stanton both Quak-
ers and citizens of Washington County.
Efforts to bail the three prisoners from Parkersburg
jail led to a series of interesting and exciting events. Un-
der Virginia law only freeholders could sign a bail bond.
So bitter was the feeling against the Abolitionists that no
freeholder, though he might be willing, would dare sign a
bond to release the despised prisoners.
Nathan Ward, William P. Cutler, and Anselm T. Nye.
three substantial and wealthy citizens of Marietta, Ohio,
ofi'ered to sign an indemnifying bond if any citizen of
Virginia would furnish bail for the prisoners, but without
success. Mr. Ward then offered to sign a note payable at
the time, if the prisoners failed to appear when sum-
moned, only to fail. A young Virginian offered to sign a
bond but as his property was in the form of bank stock
his signature was not lawful. The dispute over the law
on the part of the court officers of Parkersburg and the
energetic efforts on the part of the citizens of Marietta
to release the prisoners aroused the people and the press
of Ohio to frenzy, especially did the Abolitionists seize
upon the occasion to agitate and promote their propaganda.
Governor Bartley of Ohio became interested and called into
council William P. Cutler, who then represented Washing-
ton County in the Legislature and set before him the plan,
viz: to select one hundred picked men from the Militia,
who should secretly proceed to Parkersburg jail and rescue
the prisoners by force. Mr. Cutler counseled delay hoping
that time would allay the bitter feeling and that the dif-
ficulty might be settled without resort to arms. Virginia
for a time nightly guarded the point at the junction of the
Little Kanawha and Ohio. In the darkness a noise was
heard in the mud along the river edge one evening; think-
ing the enemy was upon them the guard fired in the di-
rection of the noise and wounded the town bull. * *
Governor Bartley abandoned his military project and
resorted to correspondence with Governor McDowell, of
Virginia. In the latter part of September Governor Bart-
ley made requisition upon Governor McDowell, at the same
time expressing his anxiety to preserve peace and harmony
between the states.
Oct. 21 Governor McDowell refused to surrended the
prisoners and reminded the Governor of Ohio "that a faith-
ful compliance with the fugutive slave laws will be more
powerful than any other instrumentality in preserving
peace and good will between the States."
Governor Bartley replied Nov. 3 as follows: "To
redress the wrongs of this outrage to the rights of our
citizens and to the sovereignty of the State resort has thus
far been had alone to the peaceful remedies of judicial pro-
ceedings ; but if your excellency is not disposed to lend your
aid and the exercise of your authority to redress these
wrongs by the course of legal proceedings; if injunctions
of the National compact are to be made secondary to strain-
ed construction of mere statutory enactments and matters
of local expediency, if a diabolical outrage of this kind is
to be perpetrated by citizens of Virginia upon the persons
of the citizens of Ohio and the perpetrators escape with
impunity, be assured Sir the friendly feeling and inter-
course between the two States will be greatly endangered,
and it is feared the people of Ohio will take justice into
their own hands and redress their own wrongs without re-
course to the authority of Virginia. I do not say this by
way of threat nor without due reflection. I believe your
excellency to be acting from good motive, but, sir, it is not
human nature for any people to submit calmly, and see
their people kidnapped and imprisoned in a foreign juris-
diction. I tell you plainly, Sir, with proper respect and due
deliberation that Ohio will not submit to such wrongs.
Still I trust. Sir, the admonition will not be entirely useless.
I am firmly of the opinion that the administration of the
criminal laws ought not to be relaxed unless it be intended
to let the people avenge their own wrong by resort to vio-
lence." As regards the legal question involved in the tran-
saction it was really a question of the boundary between
Ohio and Virginia. Virginia claimed that these pris-
oners were arrested in Wood County, Virginia when aiding
fugitives to escape. The claim of the Governor of Ohio
was that the men were kidnapped in the State of Ohio,
and forcibly imprisoned in another State. We have in
Williams History of Washington County the following ac-
count of these prisoners and their trial.
"Intercourse with their friends from Ohio was denied
them, and Marietta Lawyers employed to defend them were
rejected. Subsequently the wives of the prisoners were
permitted to visit them under guard.
Aug. 15th a public meeting was held at the Court
house in Marietta to take into consideration further meas-
ures for the liberation of Ohio citizens now in jail at Park-
ersburg, and the vindication of the rights of Ohio. Sep-
tember 2nd the prisoners, each collared by two men, were
taken from jail to the Court house in Parkersburg and
there pleaded "not guilty" to the charge of "enticing and
assisting in the county of Wood, Virginia the six negroes
to escape from slavery." Bail was again refused except
by a Virginia freeholder and the prisoners went back to
jail. The jury found a special verdict of quilty turning
on "Jurisdiction in the case, to be tried by a higher court."
The question of jurisdiction or boundary between the two
States was argued before the court of appeals at Richmond,
Dec. 10-13 and the court divided equally on the question,
whether the State line was at low water mark on the Ohio
side or above that. The men had been captured just above
low water mark.
At this trial Hon. Samuel F. Vinton of Gallipolis,
Ohio, a member of Congress, made a very able argument
in which he showed conclusively that the boundary line
between the States had been and should be low water mark,
therefore the men were kidnapped in Ohio and not Virginia,
This address was published in the Ohio Archarolcgical
Magazine, Vol. 4, Page 67.
Thouffh the judges in this case divided equally in their
OT)inion of the question of jurisdiction the case was really
settled by the argument of Mr. Vinton. At a special term of
the court of appeals held at Parkersburg. Garner, Lo-
raine, and Thomas were admitted to bail in the sum of
one hundred dollars each, on his own recognizance, Jan.
10th, 1845. After confinement in jail for six months. The
case was never again called .
This case was one of so great local and general interest
that we will insert several contemporary documents.
Aug. 7, 1845 only a short time after the kidnapping,
the following article appeared in the Marietta Intelligencer :
"From what we can learn, we are pained to announce it, —
there exists among some of the people of Parkersburg very
little of the feeling of responsibility which should result
from the outrage of Virginia in canturing and transporting
Ohioans for acts done in Ohio. There is exulting over the
feat of capturing these men. The deep feeling of indigna-
tion which is spread in Ohio seems to be utterly contemned
and disregarded. The claim to jurisdiction is as coolly as-
serted as would be the right of a master to punish his ser-
vants at his own good will and pleasure. Let us hope the
Virginians do not generally sympathize with this feeling.
Will the thousands of good people of Virginia risk their
peace and safety to protect a few men in kidnapping Ohio
citizens? Are they willing the peace of this fair valley
should be compromised? The people of Ohio are slow to
wrath but it is dangerous to despise them."
The local prejudices of that time, as well as the effect
of the able arguments of Hon. S. F. Vinton may be learned
from the following quotation from a letter of Mr. Vinton to
Caleb Emerson, Esq., editor of the Marietta Intclli;?encer,
dated Dec. 20th, 1845 after speaking of the presentation of
arguments he added. "The Judges had it under consulta-
tion for another term of four days, when the court, which
was composed of fifteen Judges, divided as follows, seven
for rendering a judgment for Virginia, seven against it, and
the other Judge, having doubts what the judgment ought
to be, the case was continued till the next term of the court.
I was informed, by a letter from Richmond, that Judge Mc-
Comas, before leaving that city said he should call at Park-
ersburg and put the prisoners to bail in some small
amount. This may be looked upon as a decision in favor
of Ohio. Indeed before that argument the prevalent opin-
ion at Richmond was that the prisoners would be condemn-
ed. After the argument I was told often by gentlemen of
the first respectability that the opinion among the Rich-
mond bar, and the outdoor opinion generally was that the
jurisdiction over the "Loews in quo" was exclusively vested
in Ohio. -'
Very respectfully yours,
SAMUEL F. VINTON.
The importance of this case and the interest taken in
it at the time in all parts of the State is shown by the fol-
lowing extract from a letter written to Caleb Emerson,
Editor of the Intelligencer by Salmon P. Chase then a law-
yer in Cincinnati. Afterwards Governor of Ohio, and
Secretaiy of the Treasury during the Civil War.
"I see that our abducted fellow citizens are released.
I am glad they are out of a Virginia jail. I thank God
for that, but I must still express my regret that they did
not find the power of the State their sufficient bail. Had I
been in their places, I know not how, in the weakness of
human nature, with strong yearnings for home, children,
v/ife, and friends stirring at my heart, I should have acted.
I think however I know how I ought to have acted, that I
ought not by word or deed, by recognizance bond or other-
wise to have admitted the jurisdiction of Virginia to try
me for an act done in Ohio and innocent by her laws."
The case seems to have been dropped after the release
of these men without any effort to recover damages from
Virginia for the kidnapping of Ohio citizens and holding
them in an illegal imprisonment for six months. This
really shows the spirit of long suffering in the North. This
was probably wise as the time had not yet fully come for
the Civil War.
It is very evident that the kidnapping was planned
beforehand by the Virginians. Had their object been
merely to retain the slaves they could easily have prevented
the start from the plantation. Instead of this sixteen
armed men crossed the river secretly and lay in ambush to
take back the slaves, indeed, but also to kidnap and punish
by the laws of Virginia citizens of Ohio, who were not
guilty of any violation of the laws of their own State.
Some of those engaged in this transaction lived to see
Virginia a bloody battle ground of the Civil war and
African Slavery forever abolished in our country.
Mr. Joseph Smith of Vincent estimated that six hun-
dred fugitives passed through Washington County between
1850 and 1860, and probably nearly or quite as many had
passed through in previous years. Several very interesting
books have been written reciting incidents connected with
the underground railroad. Since many of the most thril-
ling events occurred in the night, and were known only to
the actors, it is probably true that the half of that history
will never be written. Since we are each year receding
farther from the days of American Slavery we have
thought best to record the following representative inci-
dents that those who come after us may have a better un-
derstanding of the realities of slavery and of the Under-
During the period of which we have treated there lived
in Hockingport a man named Moses Davis who, like many
in more modern days, had a decided aversion to work and
made a living by hook and crook. In those days it was a
common thing for slaves, who did not see the justice and
pleasure of working for nothing and boarding themselves
and their masters, to slyly cross the Ohio and make their
way to Canada. When slaves ran away a liberal reward
was often offered for their arrest and return. Davis con-
ceived the idea of replenishing an empty purse by inducing
slaves to run away and then betraying them and obtain
the reward. A man named Kincheloe who lived in Vir-
ginia a little below Hockingport had five Slaves a man and
wife and three half grown children. Davis promised to
help them on the road to freedom if they would come to this
side on a certain night. The slaves not expecting treach-
ery came over and Davis, under pretense that he was not
ready to start that night, secreted them in a ravine oppo-
site Mustapha Island. The next day men from Virginia
were over, looking for the lost chattels. Davis met them
easily, of course, and in answer to their inquiries intimated
that he could put them in a way to capture the slaves if
suitably rewarded. The slave hunters refused to pay any-
thing until they got possession of their property and he
was obliged to tell them where the slaves were secreted.
In answer to the inauiry why they had stopped there, in-
stead of getting farther away the slaves told their master
that Davis had induced them to run away and promised to
forward them. This perfidious act enraged the slave own-
ers and they not only refused to pay any reward but sent
word to Davis that he would be shot if they caught sight
of him. The liberty loving citizens of Ohio were so fur-
ious over the treachery of Davis that they threatened to
hane him, and he fled the country never to return.
The ravine is now and probably will always be known
as "Nigger Run."
Case related by A. L. Curtis.
"About the year 1 820 a man named William Neal own-
ed a farm opnosite Newbury, and had an active intelligent
?51ave called Hariy of whom he was very fond and it was
hinted that the master and slave were very closely related.
At any rate Neal did not want Harry taken South to work
under the lash in the cotton fields. My father, Walter
Curtis, and his brother Horace bought him. They agreed
to credit him a certain amount per month against the pur-
chase price which was S700 and when that was paid he
was to be a free man. Harry came over and went to work
on the farm but left a wife behind. The wife was a slave
and liable to be vsold. One nieht she came across the river
to jret awav from the slave traders. Harry secreted her
in the woods and built a little fire to keep her warm. The
owners, suspecting she was in this vicinity, came over.
Harry was plowing on the hill, overlooking the road and
saw two men coming with a woman walking before them.
Seizing a stout hickory cudgel, which he had ready, he
rushed across the creek and hid by the road side. When
the men came along with their captive, he sprang out, cut
the cord which bound the womans hands and she ran back,
while he, with his club raised, told the hunters to get on
the other side of the river if they valued their lives. That
night Harry and his wife started for Canada by the under-
ground route and the investment in Slave property was
very unprofitable to the Curtis Brothers."
The following Statement by J. W. Tuttle is furnished
by Dr. F. P. Ames:
In 1850 a company of six or seven negroes were piloted
from Francis Stones one night by Mr. Vickers just beyond
the twin bridges. At that time Mr. Smith was building
the abutment of the bridge at the mouth of Davis Creek.
The next morning Mr. I. W. Putnam, noticing that Mr.
Smith was late at breakfast remarked that he must have
been running negroes away. Mr. P's remark was nearer
truth than he knew at the time."
At one time a company of slaves consisting of men,
women and children, I do not remember how many, es-
caped from Virginia not far from Marietta and reached
the farm of Massa Hovey on Duck Creek, about fifteen
miles from Marietta; their pursuers were so close on their
track that it became absolutely necessary that they should
be concealed in a deep ravine on the farm of Mr. Hovey ; a
very large tree had fallen and they were concealed by that
by the side of the tree. There they were kept for three weeks,
while the woods in the vicinity were searched for them by
their ov/ners and the "Lick Spittle,"! hired to aid in the
search. During this time friends clandestinely furnished the
fugitives with food and water. Finally a way was opened
by which they were moved on. Randal S. Wells, a cour-
ageous and adventurous man of Middle Creek, Monroe
County, was their Moses, who piloted them out of the wil-
derness to the promised land. Only two Israelites reached
the happy land of Canaan but the whole band of Randal L.
Wells reached the happy land of Canada. While the
search for these fugitives was going on, two of the "lick
■j-A name then given to those willing to aid slave catchers for the reward offered.
spittle," who were given money to buy whiskey and to-
bacco by the shwe hunters to do their dirty and nefarious
work took their rifles and went out to hunt the runaways
and also to hunt squirrels. One of the men shot a squirrel
in the top of a tall tree and it fell in the midst of these
slaves where they were concealed behind the fallen tree.
When the man started to get his game the other hunter
said : "Come on we are hunting niggers." If he had gone
for the squirrel he would doubtless have discovered the
fugitives for whom they were hunting. As it was we may
think these were providentially preserved.
We will introduce another letter which relates occur-
ences in a locality several miles from Belpre, but illustrates
the conditions in southern Ohio at that time. A consid-
erable number of Virginians, had settled in this part of
Ohio and with those who sympathized with their pro-slav-
ery sentiments were very bitter against Abolitionists.
Judge D. S. Gibbs of Hutcihnson, Kansas, wrote his rem-
iniscences as follows:
"From 1840 to 1855 it was very unpopular to be the
friend of the slave. About 1845 H. L. Preston, a resident
of Columbiana County, came into our neighborhood (Port
Soakum near Dudley Station on the C. and M. R. R.) and
was employed to teach our school. Soon afterwards it
became known that he was a prominent Anti-Slavery man,
and he had the manhood to declare his sentiments in pub-
lic. An effort was made to have him discharged but it
failed. My father and Oilman Dudley were directors and
both Anti-Slavery men. Mr. Preston commenced to lec-
ture on the subject of slaveiy in our school house on a cer-
tain evening. A mob came in led by a Methodist class
leader, all full of whiskey, and with their best and only
arguments, rotten eggs and scandalous and blasphemous
language, the mob took possession by force and besmeared
the school room, books, and many ladies dresses with
rotten eggs, and gave Mr. Preston more than his share.
This outrageous conduct made the cause of freedom many
During the same winter I made an appointment,
through Isaac Lund, for Mr. Preston to lecture at Macks-
burg. There he was again assaulted by a mob, who threw
rotten eggs while he was speaking. One hit him on the
shirt bosom, but he went on with his speech, remarking
that the arguments used were not very pleasant, but as
they (the mob) had no better ones to offer, he would par-
don them. These accounts of the increasing animosity
between the peoples of the North and South will help us
to understand the causes which led to our great Civil War.
The following are samples of the advertisements for
runaway slaves seen in those days.
Ten dollars for my woman Siby. Very much scarred
about the ears and neck by^vhipping.
BRYANT JOHNSON, Fort Valley, Ga.
Run away, a negro woman named Maria — has many
scars on her back from being whipped.
JAMES NOE, Red River Landing, La.
Twenty dollars reward. Ran away from the subscrib-
er, on the 14th inst, a negro named Molly. She is 17 years
of age, slim, branded on the left cheek thus, "R" and a
piece taken off her ear on the same side; this same letter
on the inside of both her legs.
ABNER ROSS, Fairfield District, S. C.
Ran away, a negro girl called Mary. Has a small
scar over her eye, a good many teeth missing. The letter
A is branded on her cheek and forehead.
J. P. ASHFORD, Adams Co., Miss.
t^ i^ K
^ rp 'Hj HE causes which led to the great Civil War can-
!^ ^ ^ not be fully treated in a local history for this
^ 1^ would require an epitome of the history of this
:^6^L. country from 1620 until the election of Abra-
ham Lincoln President in 1860. What has already been
given under the head of Underground Railroad will help
us understand the causes of the war. The discussion of
the question of slavery caused an emnity between the North
and South which grew more and more acute from year to
year. Compromises were made by the people of the North
but instead of satisfying the South they rather incited
them to demand more compromises, or rather complete sur-
render. The Republican party which elected Abraham
Lincoln in 1860 did not propose in their platform to abol-
ish Slavery, but only to confine it within the States in
which it then existed, but the politicians of the South un-
derstood that when thus confined the growing Anti-Slav-
ery sentiment of the country would eventually demand
The statement of Abraham Lincoln and other dis-
cerning statesmen that the nation could not long exist
part slave and part free, was known and understood in
the South as well as North and when the sentiment for
freedom had become so strong in the North that they had
elected a President the politicians of the South saw a hand
writing on the wall which foretold the end of slavery, if
the Union of States continued, and so they determined to
dissolve the union and establish a Southern Confederacy
with slavery one of its foundation principles. This
brought to the front a political dogma which had long been
discussed, namely that of State rights or the relation of the
government of the States to that of the nation. The Re-
publican party was the national party, which believed in
the supremacy of the national government. This in that
respect was the party which embodied the teachings of
Washington and Hamilton. The Democratic party which
held almost unanimous control of the Slave States was the
States rights party which held that because the States en-
tered the Union voluntarily they had the right to go out
of the Union whenever they chose to do so. As was often
stated in those days they commenced the word Nation with
a small n and the Republicans with a capital N.
After the result of the election of November 1860 was
known the Southern politicians did not wait for the in-
auguration of President Lincoln but proceeded to carry
their States Rights doctrine into practical operation by
appointing State Conventions and securing in them (not
by popular vote) votes of secession. These plans so far
succeeded that in February, 1861, six states had voted to
secede and had formed a new nation called the "Confed-
erate States of America." Five other States afterwards
joined this Confederacy.
These states, under their doctrine, that the state was
superior to the Nation, took possession of the forts, arms,
and munitions found within their borders and, thinking
that the States still in the Union would resist them, made
preparation for war. Quotations from documents in
which the people of Belpre are specially interested will
help in understanding the spirit of the Northern people at
Governor Dennison of Ohio, reviewing the situation,
in his message to the Legislature, January 7th, 1861, said :
"The patriotism of the country is justly alarmed. The
unity of the government is denied. Doctrines subversive
of its existence are boldly advocated and made the basis
of State action under the pretended right of a State to
secede from the confederacy at its pleasure in peace or
war. Constitutional liberty is imperiled, revolution is
meditated, and treason is justified. On the occasion of my
inauguration I felt it to be my duty to warn my country-
men against these hostile designs against the Federal
Union, but then they were in speculation only, now they
are in action. Shall they be consumated? Shall national
government be degraded into a mere league between inde-
pendent States, existing only by their approval, subordin-
ate to them and subject to be destroyed at the pleasure of
any State of the Confederacy? Or shall it continue to be
maintained as it has always been maintained as a govern-
ment proper, sovereign within its prescribed sphere —
founded on the adoption of the people, as were the States,
and creating direct relations between itself and the indi-
vidual citizens, which no State authority has power to im-
pair or disturb, and which nothing can dissolve but revo-
These sentiments of their Governor were fully endors-
ed by the citizens of Washington County. Although on
the border of a slave state very few members of the Demo-
cratic party in this county justified their erring brothers
of the South in their acts of secession but rallied loyally to
the support of the Union.
January 8th, 1861 a large number of leading citizens
of Washington County and Wood County, Virginia, met at
the Court house in Marietta, discussed the situation, ap-
pointed a Strong Committee on Resolutions and adjourned
to meet again on January 12th. On that date a large as-
sembly of representative citizens of the two counties met
and passed very strong resolutions of which we quote the
second and seventh.
II. "The doctrine of the secession of a State has no
warrant in the constitution but on the contrary is in its
effects fatal to the Union and subversive of all the ends
of its creation, and in our judgment secession is revolution ;
and while we fully admit the right of revolution for the
causes set forth in the Declaration of Independence, or for
others of equal force, and while we are grieved to say that
the governments and citizens of the States, both North and
South, have been guilty of acts of injustice towards others,
yet facts do not exist which warrant a resort to this last
and final remedy, revolution; and we have still an abiding
faith in the capacity and adaptation of the general govern-
ment to redress all grievances suffered by its citizens what
ever their origin.
VII. Notwithstanding former differences of opinion
on the subject, for the purpose of making a final adjust-
ment of the unfortunate controversy now raging in our
country, we are willing to accept as a basis of Compromise
the adjustment of the Eighth Section of the Missouri Com-
promise Act. Or we are willing to adopt the principle
that the whole subject of Slavery in the territories shall be
left to be determined by the will of bona fide residents of
such territories provided they also be left free to elect their
own officers, executive and judicial as well as legislative.
These resolutions were a fair representation of the
sentiment of the North at that time. These people were
so averse to war that they were willing to make any reason-
able compromise to prevent it. While most of the people
in the Northern States believed that it was wrong to hold
a fellow man in bondage they recognized slavery as a fact
and that slaves were the property of their owners. The
institution had grown up in former years and both the
owners and the slaves had grown into these conditions.
There was at that time no generally accepted plan for
the abolition of slavery; some argued the plan of purchas-
ing the slaves, and there were various theories of gradual
emancipation and deportation of the slaves to Africa. Most
of the people had a kindly feeling toward slave holders and
were ready to make any reasonable compromise to pre-
vent a civil war. Congress appointed a peace committee
of thirty-three to consider the whole matter and report
what compromises could be made but the extreme seces-
sionists were not willing even to consider the matter calm-
ly. Some remained away from the meetings of the com-
mittee entirely and others attended, as they confessed,
only as spies to prevent radical measures. The violent
secessionists were determined on a dissolution of the Union
and the formation of a Southern Confederacy as soon as
the result of the presidential election was known and they
planned to carry out their doctrine of State rights and se-
cure both the secession of the Slave States and the organi-
zation of a Confederacy before President Lincoln was in-
augurated, and they would allow nothing to prevent them
from carrying out this plan. This Committee failed to ac-
complish the object for which it was appointed as will
appear from the following extract from a letter from the
chairman Hon. Thomas Corwin to the President Elect.
"I have been for thirty days in a committee of thirty-
three. If the States are no more harmonious in their feel-
ings and opinions than these thirty-three representative
men, then, appalling as the idea is, we must dissolve, and
a long and bloody civil war must follow. I cannot com-
prehend the madness of the times. Southern men are
theoretically crazy. Extreme Northern men are practical
fools. The latter are really as mad as the lormer. Trea-
son is in the air around us everywhere. It goes by the
name of patriotism. Men in Congress boldly avow it, and
the public offices are full of acknowledged secessionists.
God alone, I fear, can help us. Four or five States are
gone, others are driving before the gale. I have looked
on this horrid picture till I have been able to gaze on it
with perfect calmness. I think if you live you may take
The investigations and action of this Committee had
no other effect on the extreme secessionists than to
strengthen their determination to proceed with their trea-
sonable actions. The effects how^ever showed the willing-
ness of the people of the Northern States to make reason-
able concessions, to prevent civil war, they also caused the
delay and ultimately the prevention of secession in the
Led forward by their determined purpose the radical
leaders of the South secured the secession of six cotton
states and the organization at Montgomery, Georgia of
"The Confederate States of America" on February 8th.
All this, although in the name of Democracy, was done, not
by the people but by conventions, who not only issued the
ordinances of secession without referring them to the people
but the representatives of these conventions composed the
Convention of Montgomery and appointed the officers of
the Confederate States.
While these radical measures were being enacted Con-
gress, still anxious for peace, passed the following amend-
ment to the Constitution to be referred to the states for
Art. 13. No amendment shall be made to the Consti-
tution which will authorize or give to Congress the power
to abolish or interfere within any State with the domestic
institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor
or service by the laws of said State."
This Amendment was signed by President Buchanan
and also approved by President Lincoln in his inaugural
Address. Conditions which followed prevented subsequent
action on the matter by the States but it is introduced here
to show that the responsibility for the war was with the
Southern politicians who as Mr. Corwin said were "theor-
etically crazy," and that the perpetuation of slavery was
the object of the war is evident from the following quota-
tion from the "Declaration of the Immediate Causes which
induce and justify the secession of the State of Misissippi
from the Federal Union."
"Our position is thoroughly identified with the institu-
tion of slavery — the greatest material interest in the world.
****A blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civiliza-
tion. That blow has long been aimed at the institution,
and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There
was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of
abolition or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles
had been subverted to work out our ruin. We must either
submit to degredation, and the loss of property worth four
billions of money, or we must secede from the Union."
William L. Harris, Commissioner from the State of
Mississippi to the Senate and house of Representatives of
Georgia used the following language. "Mississippi is firm-
ly convinced that there is but one alternative. This new
union with Lincoln, black republicans, and free negroes,
without slavery; or slavery under our old constitutional
bond of union without either Lincoln, Black Republicans,
or free negroes to molest us."
It seemed strange to Christian people at that time that
such fanaticism was allowed to prevail but in the light of
history we may see that in the Councils of Infinite Wisdom
it was time for slavery to destroy itself.
It was a common saying at the beginning of the war
both by Officers and men "we did not enlist to free the
slaves but to save the Union" and lest some might not
understand this, for some time after the war commenced
slaves who escaped into our army were sent back to their
masters. After a time General Benjamin Butler, a man
who had supported the candidacy of Jefferson Davis in the
Democratic Convention of 1860, announced that these
slaves should be retained as contraband of war for their
return to their masters strengthened the enemy. As a
result such negroes were called "contrabands" for several
years. For the reasons already mentioned the excitement
both North and South was more intense than can now be
described and when Fort Sumpter, over which waved the
Stars and Stripes, was fired upon by the authority of the
Confederate States of America, the old flag had to the
people a meaning which was not realized before. To attack
that flag was to attack not only our nation but our liberty,
our homes, our very selves, and thousands of strong men
from all ranks came forward to defend that flag, with their
fortunes and their lives. When the call came for soldiers
the people of Belpre were more vitally interested than they
had been in the war of 1812 or the Mexican war. The
town had become a thriving center of agriculture with a
population of 1529 by the census of 1860. The number of
males was 814 of these 152 served for a longer or shorter
period and 24 lost their lives. They belonged to at least
thirty regiments and batteries and there were very few,
if any considerable engagements in which Belpre was not
But the cost of the war to the people of Belpre was
not confined to those who put on the uniform and followed
the flag into dangers and death. There were fathers and
mothers who bade adieu with many tears to sons in whom
their hopes centered and who they expected would minister
to them in old age, wives who spoke words of parting to
husbands whom they loved as their own lives, brothers and
sisters, who sent to the front the one who bore the heaviest
burden in the home circle, children who might soon be or-
phaned and early compelled to assume burdens which should
have been borne by a father or brother.
Our country was saved by the patriotism, bravery, and
sacrifice of our citizen soldiers and we owe them a debt
of gratitude we can never fully repay, but the patriotism,
bravery, and sacrifice of the women who remained at home
was as truly an element in our country's salvation and is
as deserving of a place in our gratitude and honor. They
said to husbands, fathers or sons : "Go to the front" when
it mean separation and perhaps death and at the same time
largely increased the cares and responsibilities of those who
remained at home. And they sent frequent letters full of
good cheer and encouragement. It was not uncommon
when a son fell in battle for a mother to say to another
who had remained as her support, you go now and take
your place in the ranks and God will take care of us in the
The soldiers were constantly in the thoughts of home
friends, when a battle was imminent or had been fought
they anxiously scanned the bulletins and newspapers to
know if their loved ones were among the wounded or dead.
They knew that their own dear ones were liable to be
pierced by bullets or torn by fragments of shell, they might
be languishing in hospitals or dying on the battle field with
no friend to take their parting message, and the body lie
in an unknown grave. There were soldiers and Societies
in every hamlet and neighborhood and the women often
gathered to share in each others sorrow and anxiety and to
provide articles of clothing and comfort for those in camp
The patriotic ladies of Belpre were not surpassed by
the ladies of any other community in the country in their
sympathy with their soldiers at the front. The Ladies
Union Circle worked in connection with smaller circles in
different parts of the town preparing articles of clothing,
and of comfort for the sick and wounded. They also sent
to them fruit and delicacies with letters of encouragement
In 1864 they held a Fair and Festival at which they
realized $370.00 which was devoted to the wants of the
Soldiers. Articles were sent through the Sanitary and
Christian Commissions or by those who visited homes on
furloughs. Many also added largely to their own labor
and responsibilities that the men could be spared for the
During the early months of the war Belpre was a
frontier town and there was much anxiety lest the fighting
should come near them. The war sentiment in West Vir-
ginia was divided and soldiers were enlisted in both the
Northern and Southern armies and there was some fight-
ing within the state but in 1863 Western Virginia separ-
ated from the eastern portion and became a separate state.
There were a considerable number of people in Parkers-
burg whose sympathies were with the South. Fort Bore-
man was established overlooking Parkersburg and a garri-
son was stationed there during the war, but the good people
accepted the situation and there was no disturbance.
It is stated by Belpre people that during the war or
shortly after Capt. Jonathan Stone who had not shown
himself in Parkersburp: in daylight for twenty years march-
ed boldly up the main street with hat in hand, thanking
God that the cause for which he had so long contended was
successful and he was safe in Parkersburg. Notwithstand-
ing the differences and alienations before the war, now, half
a century later, the business, social and religious associa-
tions between the people of Parkersburg and Belpre are as
cordial as they could have been if they had always been
in the same state. Belpre is a suburb of Parkersburg, a
large proi^ortion of the inhabitants of Belpre are engaged
in business in Parkersburg or at least do their trading and
banking business there. The ministers in the two places
exchange pulpits with each other, are members of the same
Ministerial Association and work together for the moral
and religious improvement of the communities.
ROLL OF HONOR COPIED FROM WILLIAMS HISTORY
OF WASHINGTON COUNTY
PREPARED BY S. J. HATHAWAY, ESQ.
*l *t *t
j^^V^LLEN, Davis C, Volunteer 1862, three years,
^ J^ ^ Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, Sergeant,
\^ .10 in battles of Chattanooga, Mission Ridge and
-^^^:- Lookout Mountain.
Allen, Harvey G., Volunteer, May, 1864, one hundred
days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, served four months, discharged September 14th,
Allen, Loring P.
Armstrong, Alexander H., age 22, Volunteer, Septem-
ber 25, 1864, One Hundred and Eighty-third Regiment,
Company D, Second Lieutenant, died May 8th, 1865, from
exposure while in camp.
Barkley, Samuel W., age 18, Volunteer, January, 1862,
Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, Corporal, served two
years, died May 22, 1864, fought at Chancellorsville, Gettys-
burg, Lookout Valley and Rasaca, where he was mortally
v/ounded, May 15th.
Barrows, James K., Volunteer, discharged.
Batten, Lewis M., Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, served four months, discharged September 14,
Barcus, James M., Volunteer, May, 1864, one hundred
days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, served four months, discharged September 14,
Berry, William, First Light Artillery, Company H.
Bellows, Benjamin T., Volunteer, private, honorably
discharged, May 31st, 1865.
VILLAGE CONGREGATIONAL MEETING HOUSE. BUILT 1868
Bellows, Orin M., age 22, Volunteer, August, 1862,
three years, Ninety Second Regiment, Company G, private,
served six months, died February 26, 1863, of brain fever.
Bellows, Abram M., age 18, Volunteer, Februaiy 22,
1863, Ninety-first Regiment, Company B, private.
Bodkin, William Wallace, age 17, Volunteer, October
30th, 1861, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private,
discharged. May 30th, 1864, wounded at Gettysburg, very
severely, and re-enlisted as a veteran in 1865.
Bodkin, Charles, age 43, Volunteer, August 15, 1862,
Seventh Cavalry Regiment, Company I, private, served one
year and eight months, captured at Rogersville, Tennessee,
taken to Belle Isle, removed sick to hospital at Richmond,
where he died April 7, 1864,
Breckenridge, D. M., Volunteer, May 18, 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, attained rank of Adjutant Clerk,
served four months, discharged September 14th, 1864.
Breckenridge, Charles D., Volunteer, May 18, 1864,
one hundred days. One Hundred ?nd Forty-eighth Regi-
ment. Company H, private, served four months, discharged
September 14th, 1864, disabled and not on duty, but re-
enlisted with One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Regiment,
Company H., September 28, 1864, and was discharged with
Blow. John H., Volunteer, Ninety-second Regiment,
private, attained rank of Corporal, discharged January 28,
Blough. Rufus. Volunteer, one hundred days. One Hun-
dred and Forty-eighth Regiment. Company H, private, died
July 7, 1864, of camp disease and measles.
Berry. James B,. ap-e 38. Volunteer 1864. one hundred
days. One Hundred and Fortv-eighth Regiment. Company
H, private, discharged, September 14, 1864.
Bellows, Avery S., age 24, Valnnteer, August 9, 1862,
three vears. Ninety-second Reo-iment. Companv G, private,
served one year and four months, discharged December 19,
1863. sick ten months, discharged for disability.
Brown. John A., age 29. Volunteer, Mav. 1864. one
hundred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, Orderly Sergeant, served four months, dis-
charged September 14, 1864.
Cox, Jefferson, Seventh Cavalry, Company I.
Campbell, Charles H., age 40, Volunteer, May, 1864,
one hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regi-
ment. Company H, Corporal, served four months, dis-
charged September 14th, 1864.
Campbell, Theodore W., age 20, Volunteer, May 18,
1864, one hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth
Regiment, Company H, private, four months, discharged,
September 14th, 1864.
Clark, John, age 23, Volunteer, three years. Seventy-
third Regiment, Company F, private, died August, 1862,
from a gun shot wound received in the battle of Bull Run.
Campbell, Currun, Volunteer, August 4, 1862, private,
injured by accident June 9th, 1863, remained in hospital
till August 14th.
Clark, John J., age 31, Volunteer, August 1862, three
years. Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, three
years, discharged June 29th, 1865. In March 1864 was
transferred to Company H, Veteran Reserve Corps, wound-
ed at Fort Stephens, District Columbia, July 12, 1864.
Clark, Jacob, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F,
killed in action at Cross Keys.
Chick, John C, One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment,
Cole, William R., age 19, Volunteer, July 27, 1861,
three years. Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, private,
served one year discharged October 14, 1862 for disability.
Coleman, Alfred, Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K.
Curtis, Henry C, Volunteer May 18, 1864, one hundred
days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
Curtis, Columbus B., Volunteer, May 18, 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, Sergeant, four months, discharged, September
Curtis, A. L., age 34, Volunteer, May 18, 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, First Lieutenant, four months, discharged,
September 18, 1864,
Dalzell, James, aj?e 24, Aiigrust 4, 1862, three years,
Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, served three
years, captured at Carthage, Tennessee, March 8, 1863,
taken to Libby prison, parolled and exchanged in June,
and discharged with regiment, June, 1865.
Davis, J. T., age 18, Vohmteer, May 18, 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred Forty-eighth Regiment, served
four months, discharged September 14th, 1864, sick most
of the time and out, returned and vi^as discharged with his
Davidson, Eli, age 34, Volunteer, May 18, 1864, serv-
ed one hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Reg-
iment, Company H, Corporal, died 1865, taken sick at City
Point, remained in hospital till two weeks after discharge
of Regiment and returned home.
Deeble, Charles H., age 17, Volunteer, March 4, 1864.
Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, Musician, attained
the rank of Orderly, served one year and four months,
discharged July 20, 1865, was in all the battles of his
regiment after his enlistment, and discharged with it.
Deeble, Joseph, age 42, Volunteer, May 18, 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, Wagon Master, served four months, discharg-
ed September 14, 1864, died October 8th, 1864.
Dexter, John L., age 27, Volunteer, August 2. 1861,
Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company F, private, served three
years and two months, discharged July, 1865, neither sick,
captured or wounded during service.
Dexter, Francis, age 25, Volunteer, May 18th. 1864,
One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company H. pri-
vate, discharged August, 1864, sick but not wounded or
captured during service.
Dustin, Charles E., age 49, Volunteer, 1862, Seventy-
third Regiment, Company D, private, served three weeks,
killed at Bull Run three weeks after enlistment; had prev-
iously served in the Florida War.
Eskey, Samuel S., age 31, Volunteer, May 18, 1864,
one hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regi-
ment, Company H, private, serv^ed four months, died Sep-
Fletcher, Amasa S., age 19, Volunteer, August 25,
1862, Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, served
two years and nine months, discharged May 18th, 1865,
wounded at Atlanta, Georgia and disabled for several
Fish, David, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F,
Flowers, Counree, 0., age 24, Volunteer, August 25,
1862, three years. Seventh Cavalry, Company I, attained
the rank of Orderly, served three years, mustered out July
Flowers, George, age 25, Volunteer, March 7, 1863,
One Hundred and Ninety-sixth Regiment, Company F, pri-
vate discharged March 13, 1865, sick and discharged from
Fletcher, John V., age 19, Volunteer, August 1861,
Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company B, private, honorably dis-
charged at close of term and re-enlisted in the Thirty-
ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Forbes, Leander, Seventh Cavalry, Company H, died
March 5, 1865.
Fletcher, Henry H., age 15, Volunteer, September 1861,
Ninth Virginia Regiment, Company D, Adjutant, attained
the rank of Orderly, honorably discharged at the close of
term and re-enlisted in the Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry
Frost, Charles, Ninth Virginia Regiment, Company K.
Foster, William, age 24, Volunteer, 1862, three years,
Seventy-fifth Regiment, Company D, private, discharged,
Frazer, Amos, Seventy-fifth Regiment, Company D.
Gilchrist, Daniel N., age 19, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, served four months, discharged Sep-
Gilchrist, James H., age 20, Volunteer, August 2, 1862,
One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Company I, private.
Galbraith, John, age 18, Volunteer, November 7, 1862,
Seventy-third Regiment, Company D, private, served two
years and eight months, discharged July 26, 1865.
Galbreath, Archibald, age 21, Volunteer, November,
1861, Eleventh Virginia Regiment, Company D, private,
served seven months, discharged June 1862, after his dis-
charge re-enlisted in Company K, Second Ohio Heavy Ar-
Galbraith, James, age 20, Volunteer, August 1862;
Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, served three
years, discharged 1865, captured at Chickamauga, Septem-
ber 20, 1863, imprisoned in Belle Isle, Libby, Anderson-
ville, Danville, Charleston and Florence prisons. Exchang-
ed March 4, 1865, sick for seven weeks, then sent home and
Green, James M., age 23, Volunteer, August, 1861,
Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, Corporal, attained the
rank of Sergeant, discharged, sick with typhoid fever and
camp disease and then in active service, discharged and re-
enlisted as a veteran September 28, 1864, in Company H,
One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Regiment and discharged
with Company, June 17, 1865.
Green, Andrew J.
Hall, John D., age 29, Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days. One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment, Company
H, private, died, 1864, taken with measles and died a few
weeks after enlistment.
Hall, James, age 20, Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, died in hospital at Bermuda Hundred 1864.
Hall, Jeremiah, age 22, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, died of measles in hispital at Point of Rocks,
Haze, Truman, Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, taken sick at City Point and died in hospital at
Washington after discharge of Regiment in 1864.
Hitchcock, Myson K., Volunteer, 1862, One Hundred
and Sixteenth Regiment, Company B, Corporal, attained
the rank of Chief Orderly, mortally wounded at Petersburg,
died May 22, 1865.
Hutchinson, John, Ninety-second Regiment, Company
Hunter, George, age 41, Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H, private, taken sick and left in hospital partially
recovering rejoined his regiment again taken sick and died
July 1, 1864.
Horton, D. B., Third Iowa Cavalry, Company I.
Henderson, Warren, age 59, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, taken sick at City Point and died in
hospital at Fortress Monroe, August 27, 1864.
Johnston, Valentine E., age 46, Volunteer, November
7, 1862, three years. Seventy-third Regiment, Company F,
private, became disabled by rheumatism and blindness, 1864,
and discharged for disability, May 18, 1865.
Johnston, Joseph W., age 20, Volunteer, November 11,
1861, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, Private, attain-
ed the rank of Color Corporal, mustered out July 20, 1865,
Johnston, James P., age 23, Volunteer, August 8, 1862,
three years, Seventy-third Regiment, private, served three
years, mustered out January 20, 1865.
Kirkpatrick, Henry, age 19, Volunteer, three years,
Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private, attained the
rank of Corporal, died August 27, 1863.
Kirkpatrick, T. M., age 20, Volunteer, three years,
Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private, died Septem-
ber 5, 1862, of wounds, at Alexander, Virginia.
Kirkpatrick, C. B., Volunteer, three years. Seventy-
third Regiment, Company F, private. Sergeant, discharged
in 1862 for disability.
Lockwood, Hugh, age 22, Volunteer, February 1865,
Kentucky Cavalry, private, honorably discharged. May
1865, for disability.
Loring, Franklin, Volunteer, July 1862, three years,
Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, Captain, served three
years, mustered out July 10, 1865.
Loring, Corwin, age 21, Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H, private, served four months, mustered out Septem-
ber 14, 1864.
Loring, Corwin H., Forty-seventh Iowa regiment, pri-
vate, died in 1863 at Helena Arkansas.
Lyle, George, Volunteer, Seventy-third Regiment, Com.
pany F, private.
McCullough H., Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K.
McFarland, S. R. W., age 22, Volunteer, August 29,
1862, three years, Seventh Cavalry, Company H, private,
attained the rank of Corporal, served three years, mustered
out July 1865, wounded near Pulaska, Tennessee.
Menzie, Rufus C. age 43, Volunteer, August 1862, three
years, Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, served
two years and ten months, mustered out June 10, 1865.
Mitstead, Isaac, Second Virginia Regiment, Company
Mitchell, John, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F.
Masel, James, Ninety Second Regiment, Company G.
Moore, Anstead, Seventy-fifth Regiment, Company I.
Newport, J. Ross, Volunteer, September 1, 1862, three
years. Seventh Cavalry, Company H, Sergeant, served one
year and three months, died, December 11, 1863, mortally
wounded at Morristown, December 10th.
Noland, George W., age 29, Volunteer, May 1864, One
Hundred and Twenty-second Regiment, Company B, private
served ten months, mustered out July 30, 1865.
O'Neil, Ezra H., age 21, Volunteer, November 18, 1861,
three years, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private,
attained the rank of Orderly Sergeant, sei'ved two years
and three months, honorably discharged February, 1864.
Severely wounded at Gettysburg.
Powell, Jesse, age 20, Volunteer, August 1864, had been
a slave, enlisted in a colored regiment in Columbus.
Plumley, William, age 33, drafted, died in 1863 before
he got to a regiment.
Reid, James, Volunteer, January 1864, Seventy-third
Regiment, Company F, private, served one year and five
months, honorably discharged for disability, June, 1865.
Rutherford, Jacob, age 28, Volunteer, Navy Ensign,
resigned June 20, 1865.
Rutherford, Josiah S., age 23, Volunteer, September
25, 1862. three years. Seventh Cavalry, Company H, pri-
vate, served two years and ten months, mustered out July,
Robinson, William, age 20, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, served four months, mustered out
September 14, 1864, re-enlisted February 1865 Thirty-sixth
Regiment, Company H, private, served six months, muster-
ed out July 27th, 1865.
Shipe, Isaac N., Volunteer, December 31, 1861, three
years, Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private, served
three years, mustreed out in 1864, re-enlisted 1864 three
years. Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private, served
seven months, mustered out July 20, 1865, wounded at Cross
Keys, December 9, 1864, captured and in prison three
months at Florence, South Carolina, parolled, March, 1865.
Shipe, John A., Volunteer, three years. Seventy-third
Regiment, Company F, private, wounded at Bull Run, fell
back and never since seen or heard from.
Stone, George G., age 20, Volunteer, three years. Sev-
enty-third Regiment, Company F, died July 25, 1863 of
softening of the brain.
Stone, Edward D., age 22, Volunteer, Aug. 10, 1861,
three years. Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, private,
attained the rank of Orderly Sergeant, served four years
mustered out July 1865.
Stone, Charles W., age 22, Volunteer, three years. Sev-
enty-third Regiment, Company F, attained rank of Second
Lieutenant, resigned July 5, 1864.
Stone, John M., age 22, Volunteer, June 1861, three
years. Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, Corporal, at-
tained rank of Quartermaster Clerk, served three years,
mustered out in 1864.
Stone, Bradley B., age 21, Volunteer, August, 1862,
three years. Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, Sergeant,
attained rank of Captain, served three years, mustered out
June 10, 1865.
Stone, Bolivar S., age 38, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, died July 17, 1864.
Stone, Augustus D., age 28, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days. One Hunderd and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, mustered out September 14th, 1864.
Stone, Franklin, age 25, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private.
Stoneman, Philip, age 19, Volunteer, August 2, 1861,
three years. Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, private,
served three years, died July 22, 1864, killed at Atlanta.
Schram, Henry, age 21, Volunteer, 1861, three years,
artillery, died July 4, 1863.
Stage, Andrew, Seventh Cavaliy, Company K.
Starling, Marion, age 16, Volunteer, March, 1864, One
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Company I, private.
Shaw, Jacob H., age 20, Volunteer, August, 1862, three
years. Ninety Second Regiment, Company G, Corporal, at-
tained rank of Orderly Sergeant, served three years, mus-
tered out July 10, 1865, wounded at Mission Ridge, Novem-
ber 25, 1864.
Sweezy, Francis M., age 17, Volunteer, November 7,
1862, three years. Seventy-third Regiment, Company H,
private, attained rank of Corporal, served two and two-
thirds years, mustered out July 1865, captured at Gettys-
burg, August 21, 1863 taken to Belle Isle and parolled.
Sweezy, John, age 17, Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H, private, four months, mustered out September 14,
1864, second enlistment February 9, 1865, Sixth Virginia
Regiment, private, mustered out June 20, 1865.
Shire, William, Seventy-fifth Regiment, Company II.
Swan, Samuel B, age 19, Volunteer, August 4, 1862,
Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, attained rank
of Corporal, served three years discharged June 19, 1865.
Swan, David R., age 19, Volunteer, Februaiy 1865,
One Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment, Company B, pri-
Sloter, Michael F., age 30, Volunteer, August 11, 1862,
three years. Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private,
served three years, discharged June 10, 1865, was sick and
detailed as nurse in hospital, never in action.
Schoonover, Augustus D., Volunteer, September 12,
1862, three years. Seventh Cavalry, Company I, private,
served three years, mustered out July 4, 1865.
Schoonover, Walter H., age 23, Volunteer, September
12, 1862, three years. Seventh Cavalry, Company I, Cor-
poral, served three years, mustered out, July 4, 1865.
Schoonover, Jacob F., age 20, Volunteer, February 22,
1865, One Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment, Company B,
private, attained Sergeant.
Shotwell, Isaac, Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, served four months, discharged September, 1864,
sick in hospital at return of Regiment.
Shotwell, Ezra M., age 19, Volunteer, May 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company A, pirvate, served four months, discharged Sep-
Smith, Arnold, Volunteer, Eleventh Virginia Regiment,
Company A, Drum Major, attained Color Bearer.
Smith, S. C. H., Seventh Cavalry, Company H.
Starr, George W., age 22, Volunteer, September 14,
1862, three years, Third Virginia Cavalry, Company E,
private, attained First Lieutenant, served three years, mus-
tered out June 30, 1865, detached on various duties.
Stoneman, William, age 15, Volunteer, August 2, 1861,
three years, Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, private,
killed at Strickers Gap.
Teeters, George W., Ninety-second Regiment, Company
Travis, Ezra, age 18, Volunteer, August 15, 1861, three
years. Seventy-third Regiment, Company F, private, cap-
tured at Atlanta and in prison at Andersonville and at
Jackson, Florida, and released April, 1865.
Travis, Lewis, age 19, Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H, private, served four months, discharged Septem-
Travis, William, age 29, Volunteer, August 11, 1862,
three years. Ninety-second Regiment, Company F, private,
discharged June 19, 1865.
Travis, Jacob, age 23, Volunteer, August 11, 1862,
three years. Ninety-second Regiment, Company F, private,
served three years, discharged January 9, 1865, captured
at Chickamauga but escaped.
Templar, Austin, Volunteer, Aug. 7, 1862, three years,
Ninety-second Regiment, Company G, private, served three
years, discharged June 19th, 1865, wounded at Chicka-
mauga and at Savannah.
Templar, Aaron, Volunteer.
Thorpe, Martin R, age 18, Volunteer, December 1861,
Seventy-fifth Regiment, private, attained adjutant, wound-
ed at Chancellorsville, re-enlisted as a veteran.
VanGilden, George H., age 19, Volunteer, February,
1864, Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, private, dis-
charged July, 1865.
Watson, John K., age 24, Volunteer, May, 1864, one
hundred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment,
Company H, private, served four months, discharged Sep-
tember 14, 1864.
Watson, Daily, age 20, Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H, private, served four months, discharged Septem-
ber, 1864, was in hospital at Point of Rocks with measles
and camp disease.
Watson, Jacob, age 18, Volunteer, August 11, 1862,
three years. Ninety-second Regiment, Company F, private,
served three years, discharged June 20, 1865, never off
duty during enlistment.
Weaver, Hanson, Volunteer, January 23rd, 1862, three
years, sixty-third Regiment, Company F, private.
Weaver, William, Twenty-seventh Illinois, Company D.
Winans, Francis, age 21, Volunteer, January 28, 1862,
three years. Sixty-third Regiment, Company F, private,
died September 1862, of diphtheria.
Winans, Benjamin, age 23, Volunteer, January 23,
1862, three years. Sixty-third Regiment, Company F, cap-
tured near Atlanta, Georgia, in 1864 and imprisoned, ex-
changed and reached home in July 1865, in reduced condi-
Walker, Henry M., Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, served four months, discharged September 1864.
White, Leonard I., Seventy-fifth Regiment, Company
White, Henry S., age 23, Volunteer, June 20, 1861,
Thirty-ninth Regiment, Company K, private, served four
years, discharged July 1865, re-enlisted in 1863 and was
detailed for Clerk duty.
White, Arastus H., age 19, Volunteer, August 14, 1862
three years. One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Com-
pany B, private, served three years discharged June 24th,
1865, wounded at Hatchers Run.
White, Sidney P., age 19, Volunteer, March 4, 1864,
One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Company B, pri-
vate, attained Orderly, was in thirteen different actions
and was transferred to Company B, Sixty-second Regi-
White, W^illiam ¥/., age 21, Volunteer, November 13,
1861, Seventy-fifth Regiment, Company D, private, died in
hospital May 17, 1864 of intermittent fever, captured at
Gettysburg and exchanged.
Williams, David, age 22, Volunteer, May 1864, One
Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company H, private,
served four months, discharged September 14, 1864,
Williams, George W., Volunteer, May 1864, one hun-
dred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H, private, served four months, discharged Septem-
ber 14, 1864.
Williams, George W., age 37, drafted, September 1864,
one year. Seventeenth Regiment, Company K, private, dis-
The following were sick in hospitals when their regi-
ment was discharged and their names do not appear in the
George Anderson, Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days. One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Company
H, private, served four months, discharged September 14th
Sanford Downs, Volunteer, May 2nd 1864, one hun-
dred days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, Com-
pany H., private, served four months, discharged Septem-
ber 2, 1864.
George A. Howe, Volunteer, enlisted in State Militia in
1861 and served on guard duty, enlisted May 1864, one
hundred days, Corporal, served four months, discharged
September 14, 1864.
Douglas A. Gilbert, Volunteer, May 1864, one hundred
days, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, private,
served four months, discharged September 14, 1864.
Huntingtons Battery 11
Seventh Ohio Cavalry 3
One each in Third Virginia Cavalry, Fifth Kentucky
Cavalry and Third Iowa Cavalry 3
One Hundred Forty-eighth Ohio National Guards 42
Ninety-second Ohio 22
Seveniy-third Ohio _ 24
Thirty-ninth Ohio 12
Seventh-fifth Ohio 7
One Hundred and Sixteenth Ohio 6
Sixty-third Ohio 3
Ninth Virginia Infantry 2
One Hundred and Ninety-first Ohio and Eleventh Vir-
ginia Infantry, two each 4
One each in Second Virginia Infantry, Twenty-seventh
Illinois, Forty-seventh Iowa, Seventy-first Ohio,
Thirty-sixth Ohio, Ninety-first Ohio, One Hundred
and forty-first Ohio, One Hundred and Twenty-
second Ohio, One Hundred and Ninety-sixth Ohio,
One Hundred and Eighty-third Ohio, and ten not
Total number of Soldiers 162
Died „ 24
The following was furnished by S. J. Hathaway, Esq.,
the compiler of this Roll of Honor, and belongs here be-
cause most of the men in this Company were from Belpre.
THE BELPRE GUARDS
At the beginning of the War of the Rebellion, Presi-
dent Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand men as it
was thought at the time, April, 1861, that this would be a
sufficient number to put down the rebellion. At the ear-
nest solicitation of Governor Dennison of Ohio, General
Geo. B. McClellan was sent with his army into West Vir-
ginia, then Old Virginia, and ordered to push on towards
the mountains and drive the rebel army back beyond that
barrier, for Governor Dennison saw if this was not done
early in the war that the Ohio River was likely to become
the border line between the contending forces.
Under these conditions McClellan began his campaign
into Virginia early in the Spring of 1861. It was the first
military movement of the war. He had not more than got
started on his campaign before the urgent need of more
troops was upon him. His line of communications was
poorly guarded, and beyond the Ohio River in Ohio the rail-
roads were at the mercy of raiding parties from Virginia,
Governor Dennison thereupon called for Ohio troops
to volunteer their services for this important duty and
many companies volunteered. Accordingly on June 23rd,
1861, the Adjutant General of Ohio issued the order for
the movement of Ohio militia and ten companies were
placed along the B. & O. which was at that time known
as the Marietta & Cincinnati Railroad, Four of these
companies were from Washington County as follows:
Co, D First Regt. Ohio Volunteer Militia, Capt. Wm. B.
Mason, The Fireman Zouaves, Captain S, F. Shaw, both
companies from Marietta, the Harmar Company, Captain
Joseph B, Daniels, and the Belpre Guards, Captain Frank
H. Loring of Belpre, this county. They served on this
guard duty for about three months as above stated and de-
serve to be honored and remembered, because they did
faithful and important service and their names are not in-
cluded in the Ohio Roster of troops for the reason that none
but those who were sworn into the U. S. service are in-
cluded in that publication and we take pleasure in giving
the names of Captain Lorings Company here, as included
in History of Washington County, from which this list is
NAMES OF OFFICERS AND MEN OF CAPTAIN
FRANK LORING'S COMPANY
Captain — F. H. Loring; Lieutenant — James King.
N on-Commissioned Officers
Orderly Sergeant — A. P. Sherman.
Serjeants— J. L. O'Neal, John Mitchell, C. W. Stone,
Corporals — A. H. Browning, P. W. Simpson, E. M.
O'Neal, A. D. Stone.
Privates — H. G. Allen, L. C. Allen, James R. Barrows,
George Ballard, Daniel Breckenridge, William Baker, W.
W. Bodkin, William Berry, Samuel Barkley, Jacob Clark,
A. F. Downer, Moses Dugan, George Dunlevy, J. G. Ellen-
wood, Councee Flowers, George Flowers, S. R. Forbes,
George Gage, Alexander Galbraith, George Hutchinson,
John Haddow, George A. Howe, John Hutchinson, D. B.
Horton, C. B. Kirkpatrick, Fremont Kirkpatrick, Henry
Kirkpatrick, Corwin H, Loring, George Lysle, George M.
Conaughey, Joseph Marsh, Joseph Miller, James Menden-
hall, James McGaffey, J. F. Newport, J. R. Newport, M.
Noland, Joseph Noland, F. Odenaham, E. R. O'Neal, William
Powell, James Powell, Josiah Rutherford, Jacob Ruther-
ford, B. B. Stone, Frank Stone, George G. Stone, William
F. Shee, Joseph Sterlin, William F. Sayre, Henry Schram,
Harrison Smith, John A. Shipe, S. C. H. Smith, Milton
Stone, F. B. Simpson, Martin Sharp, John Thompson, Wil-
liam White, Noah Welch.
AFTER THE CIVIL WAR
\ HE era of Railroad building in this country com-
[|j^ ^ menced about the year 1835 and proceeded
slowly at first. Most of the lines built during
the next two decades were in the Atlantic
States and were what would now be called short lines and
these lines were extended a few miles at a time. Rail-
roads multiplied as the people learned their advantages
and the means could be secured for their construction.
The Baltimore & Ohio was one of the first roads to extend
its lines to the west. This road advanced gradually from
year to year until 1857 when it reached the Ohio river at
Parkersburg, opposite Belpre. This road followed substan-
tially the route of the extensive stage road which was laid
out by the State of Virginia within two or three years after
the settlement at Marietta and, before the Railroad was
built, was one of the best patronized stage and freight
routes between the Atlantic States and the west. The
completion of this road gave the people at Belpre a direct
and rapid communication with the east, and greatly facili-
tated the movement of soldiers and supplies during the
Civil War. During the time, before West Virginia became
a separate state it was disputed territory. During this
period several battles were fought along the line of this
road and the daily papers often recorded the tearing up of
rails of this road by Confederate soldiers and a few days
later in another portion by Union soldiers. The import-
ance of this road for the movement of soldiers and sup-
plies was probably one of the causes of the separation of
West Virginia from the parent state and her continuance
in the Union.
In April 1857, the same year that the Baltimore and
Ohio Road was completed to Parkersburg, the Marietta and
Cincinnati Road was completed and commenced its busi-
ness. By this means direct communication by Railroad
was completed between Baltimore and Cincinnati, with the
' •- .1 '. '
JUDGE OLIVER RICE LORING
exception of nine miles between Scotts Landing and Park-
ersburg in which gap the Ohio river furnished the means
of transfer by steamboats and barges.
The costs and inconveniences of this transfer were so
great that it was impossible to secure through business
and the local business was little more than enough to keep
trains running. The business men of Washington County-
saw that a direct connection between these two roads was
of vital importance to both roads and to the public. The
English bond-holders who were interested in the B. & O.
Road were unwilling to make farther advance of money,
and the Directors of the B. & 0. refused to aid, and the
Marietta and Cincinnati Road was placed in the hands of
a receiver in 1858. Every one acknowledged that a road
from Scott's Landing to Belpre was a necessity but how it
could be built was an important question. It made that
matter more embarassing because the country at that time
(1857-58) was in the midst of one of the worst financial
panics in our history. By the transfer of the M. & C. Road
to a receiver Hon. Wm. P. Cutler was. released from his
position as president of that road, and gave his attention
to the organization of the Union Railroad Company, and
the construction of this line of nine miles of road.
W. P. Cutler, John Mills, and Douglas Putnam under-
took this work and the road was completed in 1859, so
that it was ready for use at the beginning of the Civil War.
Tracks were laid to the river bank on each side so as to
connect with large transports furnished with tracks, which
ferried both passenger and freight cars across the river.
This method of transfer was reasonably successful but
there were times when it was difficult and even impossible
to make the connections, especially in a very low stage of
water, a time of flood, or when the navigation was hindered
by floating ice. As business increased after the close of
the war it became evident that it was necessary to make
better provision for crossing the river at Belpre.
In 1868 what had been known as the Marietta and
Cincinnati Railway came under control of the B. & O. road
and was given the name of Baltimore and Ohio Southwest-
A little later it was decided to construct a short line
from Athens to Belpre and bridge the river here. The
road was completed in 1874 and the bridge about the same
time which made Belpre only a way station on a through
line of railway but it was an important station, for the
Railway Company purchased of George Dana, Esq. twelve
acres on "the plain," built suitable buildings and estab-
lished stock yards for unloading, feeding and watering
animals transported in cattle cars, as the law directs.
From that time to the present thousands of cattle,
sheep and hogs have here been rested and refreshed every
month. A large hotel was built by the Railroad near the
station which for a number of years was patronized by
cattle men and others. This business was finally suspend-
ed and after being unoccupied for a number of years the
building was demolished in 1915.
Previous to the completion of the road from Marietta
to Belpre, the history of Belpre referred to the township.
In 1852 A. H. Browning Esq., secured the laying out of a
village plat by S. H. Chamberlain, Surveyor. In this plat
were eighteen building lots. A considerable number of
additions were made to this plat until it reached its present
dimensions. After the completion of the road just men-
tioned the village began to assume importance. Dwellings
were erected, also a store in which the Post Office was
located. Soon religious services were held here and within
a few years a school house and two houses for worship
In 1870 there were about one thousand persons in the
village and a little later a petition, signed by one hundred
and ten citizens, was presented to the County Commission-
ers asking for the incorporation of a village; a remon-
strance was presented, signed by seventy leading citizens,
which delayed action on the petition, and it was finally
decided not to authorize the incorporation because the
boundaries proposed included farm lands which should not
be embraced in the village. In 1901 a majority of citizens
voted to incorporate the village and the charter was receiv-
ed January 9th, 1902. The first election of village officers
was held a little later. The citizens of Belpre have not
attempted to make this a manufacturing center very much
beyond the necessities of local trade. A ship was built
here a little above the Little Hocking by Martin Roberts.
Commenced in 1860, though not completed until after the
close of the Civil War, when it was sent down the river to
the Gulf of Mexico for ocean trade.
About this time the oil business began to assume im-
portance in Southern Ohio and adjacent parts of West
Virginia; this fact and the growth of Parkersbui'g made
the village a more desirable locality for residences and
caused a steady increase both in population and business.
In 1865 a drug store was established by C. H. Johnson,
also a flouring mill was operated near the ferry by Leseur
Hadley and Stone and a little later a planing mill and
lumber yard by Stone and Marsh.
In 1868 or 69 Barkley and Downer established a Tan-
nery in the north part of the village. This firm was succeed-
ed by Kuhn Brothers who continued the business and fur-
nished good leather for the foot wear of the citizens of
Belpre and vicinity.
For several years a pump factory was operated near
the river by Marsh, Crandal and Co.
These factories near the river were very seriously in-
jured by the flood of 1884. The flouring mill and lumber
yard were abandoned and the pump factory was reorganiz-
ed by Glazier, Potter & Rathbone who continued the busi-
ness for several years. Some years later a flouring mill
was established here by Pearcy and Son of Parkersburg
which manufactured a considerable amount of good flour
until the building was consumed by fire in 1908.
Vinegar works were established in 1834 on the farm
of George Dana. This business was continued for many
years by his son George Dana, Junior. Many thousand
gallons of good cider vinegar were manufactured here
which greatly aided the neighboring farmers by furnish-
ing a sale for their second grade apples, and the name
George Dana on a package was considered a guarantee of
George Dana commenced the evaporation of apples in
1880 and continued the business for several years. The
Dana Canning Company built a large factory near the
Railway Station in 1885 and introduced the canning of
fruit. For several years this company manufactured a large
number of cans, introducing improved machinery for that
purpose. In 1901 they disposed of this branch of the busi-
ness but have continued the canning of tomatoes, berries,
pumpkins, and apples, distributing thousands of dollars
among the farmers, and furnishing employment to a con-
siderable number of persons during the active season.
During the decade after Belpre Village began to as-
sume importance three different attempts were made to
establish a newspaper here. In 1875 J. B. Kinkead began
publishing "The Courier" which continued but a short time.
"The News" was published by Mrs. Mary J. Adams in
1878. Dana Goshen published "The Herald" in 1879-80.
Neither of these enterprises proved successful and they
were soon abandoned. The connection of Belpre with
Parkersburg and the facility of communication really make
a separate newspaper unnecessary. The Parkersburg
dailies make commendable efforts to collect Belpre news and
a Belpre directory is published with that of Parkersburg,
so that the people of Belpre are well served in these re-
The farmers have experimented with various crops to
learn which can be most profitably raised in their soil and
climate; they have tested various kinds of fertilizers in
order to know which are best for their use; they have also
supplied themselves with the most approved farming uten-
sils with which to perform their work. It has been proved
by various trials that the land on the second bottom, or
terrace, is specially adapted to market gardening, also that
while Parkersburg furnishes a limited home market, the
surplus can be transported within twenty-four hours to the
markets of Pittsburg, Cleveland and other northern cities,
and this two or three weeks earlier than they can be raised
in the vicinity of these cities. For these reasons the busi-
ness of market gardening has increased during the last
twenty years and will probably continue to grow.
Manure is easily secured from the stables of Park-
ersburg and commercial fertilizers can also be easily pro-
vided and by careful adjustment two annual crops can be
raised on much of the land.
At a gathering of farmers July 19, 1879 several mem-
bers of the Muskingum farmers Club were present who
gave an account of their organization. As a result it was
resolved to organize a similar club in Belpre.
This plan was consummated at a gathering on the
lawn of Cyrus Ames, Esq., one week later when the Belpre
Farmers Club was organized with Hon. A. L. Curtis as
President. The object of the Club was improvement in
farming, gardening, and fruit raising, and also social and
intellectual culture. Monthly meetings were held at the
homes of members for several years and all who desired to
attend were made welcome. The exercises consisted of
essays and discussions on farming, gardening and fruit
raising, also declamation and music by the young people.
These meetings were finally superceded by other neighbor-
A suspension bridge across the Ohio river connecting
Belpre with Parkersburg was commenced March 15, 1915,
and the first toll was collected April 22, 1916. This bridge
is 2845 feet in length, central span 775 feet and the towers
175 feet high above low water. This bridge brings Belpre
and Parkersburg into very close connection, and when trol-
ley cars cross the bridge (for which tracks are already
laid) the two will be substantially united for all business
and social relations. In addition to this connection with
Parkersburg there are many reasons why Belpre is a spe-
ially favorable place for residences. In religion there are
two well sustained churches with easy access to churches in
Parkersburg. The schools are equal to those in any village
in the country culminating in a High School of the first
grade and nearly every scholar can go to the school house
on concrete walks. A person can attend an evening enter-
tainment, in Marietta or Parkersburg and reach home the
same evening either by trolley or steam cars. In the village
or vicinity a family may have virtually a country home with
sufficient ground for flowers and vegetable garden, with
educational, social, and religious advantages of a city. At
the same time the children are at least partially removed
from the temptations and evil associations of a city.
Another fact is worthy of attention. There has been
no saloon in the village or township for twenty years and
in all votes on the question for several years the dry vote
has been two-thirds of the whole. The citizens of Belpre
are human and there are some who use intoxicating liquors
but the sentiment for temperance and good order is so far
in the ascendancy that it is more likely to increase than
From these considerations it is evident that conditions
in Belpre are such as to invite good citizens to make their
homes there. When the trolley cars shall cross the bridge,
for which tracks are already laid, the line will doubtless
be continued westward until there is a continuous connec-
tion between Pittsburg and Cincinnati and intercommuni-
cation between the cities and villages in the valley.
This convenience of travel and traffic together with
the growth of the enterprising City of Parkersburg will
invite families to establish homes along the plain extending
west from Congress Creek. This land is so much elevated
above the highest ambition of the Ohio river that it must
always remain dry. The land between the bluff and the
hills is all fertile and arable and as well adapted to beau-
tiful country homes as to market gardening.
Those who look upon this region a half a century hence
will doubtless see fruit orchards, vegetable and flower gar-
dens, and well trimmed lawns interspersed with attractive
and costly homes making one of the most attractive subur-
ban regious in the valley.
K K H
/^ ^ HE first school in Belpre was taught by Miss
% QL ^ Bathsheba Rouse in the block house of Col.
\ ^ Ebenezer Battelle, during the summer of 1789.
^S6^ Miss Rouse was the first female teacher in Ohio
and it is significant that during the season that the first
cabins were occupied the settlers made provision for the
education of their children by the establishment of a school.
In their minds the school was the direct and imme-
diate associate of the home in the interests of the rising
generation. Miss Rouse taught a school for several subse-
quent summers and a winter school was taught by a male
teacher, among the first of these were Jonathan Baldwin
and Daniel Mayo, the latter a graduate of Cambridge Col-
lege. These pioneers seem to have followed substantially
the plan of country schools in New England at that time,
which was to employ a female teacher for three months in
the summer and a male teacher for an equal time in winter.
Universal education through the common schools in
this country had its origin in New England. The settlers
there brought with them the town meeting as the unit of
a democratic government, and, because all the citizens were
I^articipants in such a government, all should be made in-
telligent. It has been true in the history of various parts
of our country that wherever a company of settlers from
New England have located there has very soon been a
school and, before the settlement has become very large,
plans have been made for an academy and college.
When Stone's Fort was erected in 1793 there were
forty children in the families domiciled there and a school
house was built within the palisades. We find mention of
a log school house in the middle settlement in 1801 which
had evidently been erected some time earlier. There was
also a log school house at Newbury as early as 1800. These
early school houses were warmed in winter by an ample
fire place in one end of the room. The entrance was on
one side of this fire place and the teachers desk on the
other side ; there were seats for scholars on the other three
sides of the room with an open space in the center where
the scholars recited, and toed a line when they stood in the
spelling class. A little later, and perhaps at this early day,
a small silver coin was perforated for a string and worn
home each night by the scholar who was at the head of the
class, and borne away in triumph on the last day by the
scholar who had worn it home most times during the term.
School houses were built in other portions of the township
as they were needed. Some small appropriations were
made for the first schools by the Ohio Company but most
of the expenses were borne by the parents. Mrs. Preston,
in her history of Newbury, states that the "wages of teach-
ers during those early years were five dollars a month with
what the parents of the children could give, the teacher
boarded around." The five dollars probably came from the
Ohio Company's appropriations or from other public funds
and the balance from tuitions and contributions.
We have found no account of a strike of teachers for
higher wages. All sought to serve the good of all, even
though it required a real sacrifice. These early schools in
Belpre were voluntary, established and maintained by the
sentiment of the people.
Having given this account of the first movements in
the cause of general education in Belpre, we may pause to
consider the early history of schools in Ohio. It was the
sentiment for general education in New England which
introduced into the Act for the Survey and Settlements of
Public Land a provision for the reservation of section 16
in every tovniship for the promotion of education. It was
this same sentiment which caused the Ohio Company, at a
meeting in Providence, R. I. March 7th, 1788, to record the
"Resolved, That the Directors be requested to pay as
early attention as possible to the education of youth and
the promotion of public worship among the first settlers."
(It is interesting to observe by the date that on that day
the first company of 48 pioneers were camped at Simrills
Ferry (West Newton) Penn. constructing the boats which
were to carry them down the rivers to the point where they
were to commence the Settlement.) It seems to have been
the idea ol" settlers in various parts of the state that Section
sixteen in each township, reserved for schools, would in
some way be made sullicient for the cause of education in
the state, and as a result the schools laws enacted during
the first two decades of the nineteenth century had almost
exclusive reference to the sale or renting of these lands.
It was for the interest of speculators to secure these lands
as cheaply as possible and evidently some mistakes were
made by the authorities during this period, and it became
evident that some provision must be made for schools be-
yond the revenue derived from these lands.
The settlers from New England desired to make pro-
vision for free public schools, as we may learn from the
schools established in the Ohio Company's settlements, but
there were many in the state who opposed the movements
for free schools.
The first efficient act for the establishment of free pub-
lic schools was introduced to the legislature in 1819 by Hon.
Ephraim Cutler the member from Washington County.
This met with strong opposition but was introduced in the
legislature the next year 1820-21, when it was passed by
the House but was not considered in the Senate. The
matter continued to be earnestly advocated by the friends of
general education, and as violently opposed by those of
In the legislature of 1821, Caleb Atwater, a representa-
tive from Pickaway County, secured the passage of a reso-
lution providing for the appointment, by the Governor, of
a commission of seven members "to collect, digest and re-
port to the next General Assembly a system of education for
common schools, and also to take into consideration the
state of the funds set apart by Congress for the support
of common schools." The members of this commission were
Caleb Atwater (chairman), John Collins, James Hoge, Na-
than Guilford, Ephraim Cutler, Josiah Barker and James
This Commission made very extensive investigation
and reported to the legislature of 1823-4, but this body was
so much opposed to legislation both on public schools and
internal improvements that no action was taken. In the
next legislature which convened in 1824 the paramount is-
sues were the common schools and the canals.
It is an interesting fact that these two subjects were
closely associated in the legislation of Ohio and they really
aided each other. The more intelligent members of the As-
sembly were in favor of the schools and the more progres-
sive favored internal improvements. A goodly number of
members were embraced in both classes, and by joining
forces both projects succeeded. As a result of the report
of the Educational Commission a bill was presented, drawn
by Nathan Guilford, v/hich embraced the principles present-
ed by Mr. Cutler five years earlier. This bill provided that
a "fund shall be annually raised among the several coun-
ties of the state, in the manner pointed out by this act, for
the use of the common schools, for the instruction of youth
of every class and grade without distinction, in reading,
writing, arithmetic and other necessary branches of a com-
mon education." This money was to be raised by a tax on
all property in the counties. There were also provisions
for laying out the townships into convenient school districts
and the appointment of examiners without whose official
certificate no one could draw pay for teaching. This bill
was entitled "An Act to Provide for the Support and Better
Regulation of Common Schools" and it became a law Feb.
5, 1825. The following circumstance relating to its pas-
sage is given in Randall and Ryans History of Ohio (Vol.
8, Page 383) "When the bill was on its final vote for passage
in the House, Ephraim Cutler, who was a member of the
Senate from Washington County, stood anxiously beside
Mr. Guilford waiting for the result. For years he had ad-
vocated the principle then pending before the House. In
the constitutional Convention of 1802 and in the General
Assembly he had long sought this end. When the vote was
announced showing that the bill had passed, Mr. Cutler
turned to Mr. Guilford and reverently repeated the words
of Simeon (Lu. 2:29) 'Lord now lettest thou thy servant
depart in peace according to thy word for mine eyes have
seen thy salvation.' Thus was accomplished the greatest
educational work in Ohio's history."
The three men to whom Ohio owes this legislation were
Ephraim Cutler, of Washington County, Nathan Guilford,
of Hamilton County, and Caleb Atwood, of Pickaway Coun-
ty, although they represented different portions of the
state it is an interesting fact that all these men and also
Samuel Lewis, appointed first State Superintendent of Ed-
ucation in 1837, were born and educated in Massachusetts,
so that our excellent school system is due to the sentiment
instilled into the minds of these gentlemen in the old Bay
State, and the home of Mr. Cutler had been in Belpre
Supplemental laws have been passed since that time
especially about 1850 when an act was passed which open-
ed the way for special union districts and the establish-
ment of High Schools in townships and villages. These
laws have affected the subsequent history of schools in
In the educational systems of New England down to
half a century ago the common schools provided the rudi-
ments of an education for all classes of children. The high-
er English branches and languages were taught in Acad-
emies or tuition schools, where scholars were fitted for col-
lege. It seems to have been this idea of an education which
led JNIessrs. George Dana, A. W. Browning, Lorin E. Stone,
and Charles Cook, to construct the building, immediately
south of the Congregational Church, which was called Bel-
pre Academy. The first principal in this school was Miss
Hannah Temple, a grand-daughter of Rev. Samuel P. Rob-
bins, second pastor of the First Church in Marietta and
Belpre. She was a superior teacher and her work is still
remembered by many of her pupils. After a few years
Miss Temple was succeeded by Miss Nancy Porterfield who
continued in charge of the Academy until it was superceded
by the High School. This excellent teacher decided to
change her name to Mrs. William Armstrong and become
a prominent citizen of Belpre where she has devoted her
life to the improvement of the community.
About this time there was some rivalry among the
families in the village and J. B. Hulburt, who had been a
teacher in one of the neighboring township schools, was
placed in charge of another tuition school known as Belpre
Through efforts of W. W. Northrup, Esq., a special
school district was organized in Belpre Village in 1872, and
W. W. Northrup, N. B. Adams, and C. A. Brown were
chosen a Board of Education. This Board organized a
High School with J. B. Hulburt as principal and Mary
Barkley, Edna Hubbard and Parks S. Browning, assistants.
The following year Prof. E. S. Cox became superin-
tendent of the schools and principal of the High School.
He graded the village schools, systemized the course of
study, and thoroughly organized the several departments
and so prepared the schools for greater usefulness. Mr.
Cox was an eminent teacher for many years.
Mr. L. D. Brown was superintendent in 1874. This
gentleman v/as afterwards superintendent of schools in the
state and still later was President of the State University
of Nevada. It is pleasant to record that Belpre contributed
her mite in preparing Mr. Brown for greater usefulness.
Previous to this time the village schools were held in
the frame building now occupied as a dwelling by Dr.
Charles Goodno. The size and importance of these schools
increased so rapidly that in 1875 the citizens decided to
construct a new and more extensive building of brick. This
was completed at a cost of about $10,000 and the following
year was occupied by the schools.
The village continued to increase so that even the new
building was too small, and in 1907 it was enlarged by the
addition of four school rooms and a Superintendents office.
The frame building was used as a school for colored chil-
dren until 1887, when in compliance with a state law, this
school was closed and all children without distinction of
race or color were received into the public schools. This
movement caused some objections to be raised at first, but
it was soon approved by all classes of the people and it
aroused in many of the colored children an ambition to
make themselves worthy of their larger opportunities, a
very respectable number have already completed the High
The first class consisting of four members was grad-
uated from the High School June 10th, 1875. The program
of exercises was as follows :
(First Page) —
FIRST ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT
BELPRE HIGH SCHOOL
In Methodist Episcopal Church
at Eight P. M.
Saturday, June 10th, 1875
(Second Page) —
REV. J. C. ARBUCKLE, B. A.
at Methodist Episcopal Church
on the evening of
June 11th, A. D. 1875
(Third Page) —
Music — Qui Vi Wilhelm Gitxiz
Music Come Again With Song
Oration — To the Victors Belong the Spoils
David P. Guthrie, Jr.
Music — The Rover _ Alexander Lee
Essay— Stepping Stones Annie B. Paden
Music - _ Quartette
Essay — The Port to Which We are All Sailing
Music— The Land of Swallows Massine
Essay — A Scholars Aim Annie E. Lockwood
Music — Ah! With Rapture My Heart is Beating
_ Mrs. Dora Shaxv
Conferring of Degrees
Mrs. Shaw sang at each commencement until an or-
chestra was introduced.
This school has graduated a class each year since that
time. It is a first class High School and its graduates are
admitted to the colleges of the state on their diplomas.
There are now within the township four special or
union districts ; the village, with ten rooms ; Rockland, with
four rooms; Center Belpre, with two rooms, and Little
Hocking with two rooms. Besides these there are three
small schools in remote neighborhoods, Newbury, Red Bush,
and Mill Branch.
When pupils from these small rural schools enter the
High School they usually maintain as high rank in scholar-
ship as those from the union schools. The standard of
scholarship is high in all Belpre schools and there are a re-
spectable number who enter higher institutions each year.
There are also some who for various reasons secure their
High School course at Parkersburg, and a considerable
number each year graduate from Commercial Colleges at
Marietta and Parkersburg.
Most of the time representatives of Belpre may be
found availing themselves of the privileges of a College Ed-
ucation either at Marietta or other similar institutions.
Intelligence was a very marked characteristic of the
inhabitants of New England from the beginning. It is
probable that no settlement ever made embraced so large
a proportion of liberally educated men as the settlement in
Massachusetts Bay. Schools, Colleges, private and public
libraries appeared very early in the history of New Eng-
land. The pioneers in Belpre were nearly all from New
England and brought with them the habits and tastes un
der which they had been reared. At that time there were
none of the almost unlimited variety of magazines now
within reach, and there were no daily papers, and even if
there had been there were no means of delivering them in
this distant wilderness. The information of the people
must be derived from books and these were not very abund-
ant in the log cabins of the settlers.
This condition will help us to understand why the first
Library in the North West Territory was in Belpre. About
1880 a newspaper discussion arose between three libraries
in Ohio respecting priority, which each claimed. The mat-
ter was referred to Hon. John Eaton, then United States
Commissioner of Education. He referred it to a committee
of literary gentlemen in Ohio, who reported as follows:
"Hon. John Eaton, National Commissioner of Education,
Washington, D. C, Dear Sir: The undersigned, who were
named by you as a Commission before whom could be
brought claims to prove the establishment of social (or
public as distinguished from private) libraries in the
Northwest Territory, beg leave to report that they have had
before them the claims of three localities, viz: (1) Cin-
cinnati, (2) Ames Township, Athens County, called Coon
Skin Libraryt, (3) Belpre, Washington County, and that
they are unanimously of the opinion that the claim of the
last named place has been made good. * * *
J. J. BURNS.
We are informed by Dr. S. P. Hildreth that General
Israel Putnam during his life time collected a large library
of useful books, embracing History, Belle letters, travel,
etc. for the benefit of himself and children and called it the
"Putnam Family Library." After his death, in 1790, these
books were divided among his heirs and quite a number
of them found their way to Belpre, brought out by his son
and grandchildren, when Colonel Israel returned with his
family after the Indian War in 1795.
The family, with their generosity and public spirit,
knowing the habits and tastes of their neighbors, were not
willing to enjoy these books alone and so made them a
niicleus of what came to be known as "The Belpre Farmers
As evidence of the early establishment of this library
we have the following:
fSo called because fimt books were purchased with Raccoon 8kina.
Marietta, Oct. 26, 1796.
Received of Jonathan Stone, by the hand of Benjamin
Miles ten dollars for his share in the Putnam Family Li-
In the record of Probate Court in 1801 we find the
estate of Jonathan Stone credited with his share of library
stock. From this we infer that other shares were distri-
buted and other books purchased from time to time. In
Howe's History of Ohio we have a significant mention of
this library. Under Meigs County we find a quotation from
a letter written by Amos Dunham who lived several miles
from where the libraiy was located. He says: "The long
winter evenings were rather tedious, and in order to make
them pass more smoothly, by great exertion I purchased a
share in the Belpre Library, six miles distant. From this
I promised myself much entertainment, but another ob-
stacle presented itself — I had no candles; — however the
woods afforded plenty of pine knots, — with these I made
torches by which I could read, tho I nearly spoiled my eyes.
Many a night have I passed in this manner till twelve
or one o'clock, reading to my wife, while she was hatchel-
ling, carding or spinning..' This wife left the testimony
that her husband "could always find time to attend the
meetings of Belpre Library regardless of the pressure of
Isaac Pierce was librarian and the books were kept in
bis house. We have found no record of the whole number
of books in this library, nor what books were purchased
from time to time, we may safely say that the library was
highly prized and was of very great benefit not alone to
men like Amos Dunham but specially to the generation then
securing an education and forming habits. The library
continued in circulation about twenty years. In 1815 the
association was dissolved by mutual agreement and the
books divided among the stockholders. We have no record
of the reason of this dissolution but we are confident it
was not through any decrease of interest in education or in
the value put upon books. A considerable number of these
FRANKLIN P. AMES, M. D.
HON. A. W. GLAZIER
books are now in possession of descendants of the stock-
HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY
We find a record of the fact that when Mr. L. D. Brown
was principal of the High School in 1874 he made the be-
ginnings of a High School Library. Quite a number of
books were secured, and are still in existence at the School
Building. No additions seem to have been made to this
library for a considerable number of years and the books
are not regularly distributed. It is true that inhabitants
of Belpre can secure books from the ParkersDurg Public
library by the payment of annual dues, but the people of
Belpre are sufficiently intelligent and should be sufficiently
enterprising to maintain a library of their own. One of
the objects of the Belpre Historical Society, described in
another part of this history, is to collect and preserve His-
torical documents and relics. This Society might very prop-
erly be associated with a Library Association in erecting
and sustaining a building which should be used both as
a library and historical museum.
In our visions of the future we hope to see before very
many years a trolley line extending westward and even-
tually connecting us with all the river towns as far at least
as Cincinnati. When that time comes the land along the
river will doubtless be divided into small farms devoted to
intensive gardening and the hill sides will be variegated by
finiit orchards. Many fine residences will also be built as
country homes. When this vision becomes real the citi-
zens will be as intelligent and enterprising as any who have
gone before them and there should be in some central
locality a fire-proof building in which a free public library
should be sustained for the town. Such a library is really
needed to supplement our excellent schools and so help pre-
pare the constant stream of young people who shall be
educated here and go forth to act their part in the progress
of the coming years. It may be possible, if the inhabitants
of the township will pledge themselves to fulfill certain
specified conditions, to secure funds to erect a building from
the generous gifts of Mr. Carnegie.
If this .should fail what more valuable or lasting monu-
ment could be erected by a descendant of a pioneer or of
a later citizen of Belpre than to build and endow such a
CXX\ \HE first settlers in Belpre were nearly all from
'J »! New England and most of the men were Revo-
^ lutionary soldiers. The original settlers in
-^^ri- New England were puritans, who not only fully
believed the verities of Christianity but made their religion
the rule of their conduct in every day life. Many changes
in this respect were wrought during the colonial period.
There were many important duties which claimed imme-
diate and earnest attention ; among these were the building
of homes, preparing the soil for cultivation, establishing
new settlements, guarding against Indian attacks, and the
founding of civic, social, and educational institutions. Such
important matters tended to turn the thoughts of many
away from the practical duties of religion. There were also
the French and Indian Wars during the later j^ears of the
seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth centuries
which exposed many of the young men to the demoraliza-
tions of army life. Many of the religious writers of that
period very sadly deplored the changes, specially among
young men, through these causes.
The vicisitudes of army lime during the Revolutionary
period, the absence from hom.e and from church privileges,
and the association of our officers with the French had also
reduced the number of church members among our officers
Several of the pioneers who made their home in Belpre
were decidedly christian men who were governed by the
puritan principles of their ancestors. Although a majority
were not church members all had positive religious con-
victions and favored the establishment of churches and re-
In their plans for the first settlement the Ohio Com-
pany arranged for the employment of a religious teacher.
Among the first settlers in Belpre Colonel Ebenezer Battelle,
Captain Benjamin Miles and Colonel Israel Putnam were
mentioned as specially interested in the establishment of
religious institutions. In March, 1789, about the time the
first settlers commenced to prepare their log cabins in Bel-
pre. Rev. Daniel Story arrived at Marietta as a religious
teacher provided by the Ohio Company and for a number
of years he ministered alternately in the different settle-
ments, visiting Belpre once in five weeks, though these
visits were sometimes omitted during the Indian War.
As soon as Colonel Ebenezer Battelle had completed
his Blockhouse religious services were commenced in Bel-
pre in one of his rooms, and when Mr, Story was not pre-
sent the services were conducted by Colonel Battelle who
usually read a sermon from some eminent divine.
The uncertainty respecting the future of the Colony
occasioned by the Indian War caused a delay of several
years in the organization of a church and the First Church
of Marietta was not organized until Dec. 6, 1796; this
church embraced members in four settlements and a Deacon
was chosen for each of these localities, namely. Marietta,
Belpre, Waterford, and Vienna, Virginia, This officer for
Belpre was Captain Benjamin Miles who held the office
until the time of his death in 1817. As early as 1801 an
Ecclesiastical Society was organized in Belpre to which was
given charge of religious affairs, and during this or the
following year a log meeting-house was erected on the bluff
a little above the old cemetery, the site of this building and
also a part of the cemetery have been carried away by the
In Williams History of Washington County we find
the following record. "At a business meeting of the Relig-
ious Society held March 1st, 1802 it was resolved that the
Society meet every Sabbath at ten o'clock and that the
preachers perform forenoon and afternoon service with one
hour's intermission and that persons be appointed to read
the sermons and prayers, also that the singers be earnestly
invited to attend ; also that a contribution be taken on the
first Sabbath of each month to enable us to pay for regular
preachin.o-." A little earlier at a meeting of the Society,
"Perley Howe, Judge Foster, and William Browning were
appointed a committee to collect subscriptions and to ap-
propriate the amount towards the building of a school or
meeting-house on the Biufi." At a later meeting held in the
"meeting house on the bluff," as it was ever after called,
the committee reported "an excess of twelve shillings, nine
pence which sum was laid aside for current expenses."
In account of early schools we find mention of a log
school-house, and it seems probable that the building was
used for a time for both church and school purposes.
Rev. Samuel P. Robbins, the successor of Rev. Daniel
Story, commenced preaching at Belpre once a month in
1805. At a meeting of the Society Octo. 27th "it was voted
that Isaac Pierce, Daniel Loring, and Nathaniel Gushing,
be requested to read sermons alternating, during the three
Sundays of the month when Mr. Robbins would be absent.
It was farther voted that Deacon Miles and Colonel Putnam
be appointed to pray at these meetings.
In 1809 "Deacon Miles, Perley Howe and Benjamin
F. Stone were appointed to read and pray, and in 1810
this duty devolved on Isaac Pierce, B. F. Stone, and Colonel
Cushing. At a meeting July 19th Rev. Mr. Langdon was
hired for one year."
About 1808 the question arose whether they would re-
pair the meeting house or build a new one. It was decided
The subject of a new building came up again in 1819
and after necessary preliminaries it v/as decided to build of
brick in what is now the cemetery. This house was enclos-
ed and occupied in 1821 but not completed until several
years later. These efforts to hold regular and continuous
religious services were certainly commendable and mani-
fested the character of the pioneers. We of a later genera-
tion owe very much to the faithfulness of these men in lay-
ing the foundations of intelligence and religion in the new
In 1805 Rev. Thomas Robbins, a missionary in the
Western Reserve, visited Marietta for the purpose of assist-
ing in the Ordination of his cousin Rev. Samuel P. Robbins.
He preached two Sundays in Belpre and was invited to re-
main as permanent pastor but the invitation was not ac-
cepted and Mr. Robbins returned to his wider work in the
new settlements in the Reserve and a few years later re-
turned to New England.
On Friday, November 25, 1826, at a preparatory lec-
ture the members of the First Church in Marietta residing
in Belpre resolved to request letters of dismission for the
purpose of organizing a separate church. It was also voted
that the Articles of Faith and Covenant of the Parent
Church should be adopted by the Belpre Church.
These persons were granted letters of dismission Dec.
14th and on Jan. 1, 1827, with the aid of Rev. Luther G.
Bingham, then pastor of the Marietta Church, the "First
Congregational Church of Belpre" was organized, consist-
ing of the following members: Irene Benedict, Sophia
Browning, Hannah Stone, Susannah Stone, Deborah A.
Dana, Abijah Wedge, Lucinda Wedge, Dea Perley Howe,
Lucy E. Gilbert, Josiah Whiting, Sarah Whiting, Elihu
Clark, Deborah Clark, Rowena Putnam, Charlotte L. Put-
nam, Sally Goodno, Benjamin H. Miles, Maria Miles, Eliza-
beth Bell, Barzillai T. Miles, Hannah Miles, Amos Fisher,
Huldah Fisher, Stephen Guthrie.
Perley Howe was chosen deacon and held that office
until his death. Benjamin H. Miles, son of Deacon Ben-
jamin, was also chosen Deacon soon after. Rev. Jacob Little
ministered to the church about one year and he was suc-
ceeded by Rev. Augustus Pomeroy. In 1829 Rev. Aldison
Kingsbury became joint pastor of this church and the Pres-
byterian Church of Warren, a position which he held with
great acceptance for ten years, when he was dismissed to
become pastor of a Presbyterian church at Zanesville,
Ohio. This church continued its union with the Warren
church in the support of a minister for a few years, longer
and then assumed the support alone and for some time re-
ceived aid from the American Home Missionary Society.
For a considerable number of years this church was
sustained by most of the families in the Township. Wagons,
well loaded with the large families of that period, came in
the morning to the chui'ch where a preaching service was
held about half past ten o'clock, a noon intermission was
held, during which the worshippers partook of the bounti-
ful lunch which they had brought from home; a few years
later, after the establishment of a Sunday School, its ses-
sions were held during this intermission. The congregation
assembled again in the afternoon for another sermon, after
which they returned home in season to attend to the even-
ing chores. In 1858, after Belpre Village began to as-
sume some importance, frequent services were held there
and in 1869 the present house of worship was erected.
From that time services were held both in the village and
in the old brick church until the Center Belpre Congrega-
tional Church was organized.
CENTER BELPRE OR PORTERFIELD CHURCH*
The Center Belpre Church was organized in 1880 con-
sisting mostly of members of the old church residing in that
vicinity. The old brick meeting house in the cemetery was
sold and the congregation worshipped for several years in
the school house. In 1889 a convenient house of worship
was constructed. This building was repaired in 1917 and
is now an attractive community center. A very interesting
Sunday School is sustained and a preaching service is
usually held every two weeks. This church is supplied by
the pastor of the village church.
The honor of establishing the first Sunday School in
Belpre belonged to Mrs. Lucy E. Gilbert. Mrs. Gilbert,
then Miss Lucy E. Putnam, attended school in Marietta
about 1818 when the first Sunday Schools were es-
tablished there. She became very much interested in these
schools and in their work. When she returned home she
gave such an interesting account of the work that she was
requested to organize such a school in Belpre, which she did
about 1820 or 21 and she was a teacher in the school for
more than forty years; there are persons still living (1917)
who were her pupils. Sunday Schools had not then been
adopted by churches as they were a few years later, but
were voluntary organizations maintained by a few persons
desirous of benefitting the rising generation. This school
was held in the brick meeting house and after a time was
adopted by the church and was held during the intermis-
sion between morning and afternoon services. The exercis-
es consisted of repeating passages of Scripture and ques-
tions and answers from the Westminister Catechism. Some
years later they used "Union Questions" published by the
American Sunday School Union. Sunday Schools have also
at different times been sustained in remote neighborhoods
title Railway Station Is Porterfleld and tte Post Office Center Belpre.
of the town. Sunday Schools are now a regular church
service in nearly all churches in our country.
In a diary of Judge Ephraim Cutler we find the fol-
"The first effort for religious instruction in the place
(Warren) was the establishment of a Sunday School. It
was commenced May 3rd, 1810 and continued through the
Summer by Mr. Joshua Shipman of Marietta and Miss
Mary Ann Cutler. The scholars were taught the catechism
and committed to memory portions of Scripture. This
school was continued for several years and resulted in much
good." Since Warren township was not established until
Sept. 3rd, 1810 this school the first season was in Belpre
Township which makes Belpre a pioneer in the Sunday
Schools of Ohio.
There was occasional preaching at Newbury by itiner-
ating Methodist preachers as early as 1800. In 1811 or 12
a Society was formed which held services in the School
house until 1829 when a house of worship was erected which
was occupied for about fifty years and was a source of
much good in the community.
Mrs. Laura Curtis Preston, in a history of Newbury,
writes of this building: "The windows were built high to
prevent the boys looking in and disturbing prayer meetings.
A partition about four feet high divided it in the center,
the men sitting on one side and the women on the other, and
it was a brave youth who dared to sit with his girl and
endure the gaze of all eyes. The pulpit was a square box,
the minister shutting the door after him; when he knelt
not even the top of his head was visible. In time the in-
terior of the church was remodeled, the partition removed
and the pulpit changed. The more noise a minister made
the better he was considered, and at times there was great
excitement in the old church." In 1879 it was decided to
remove to Little Hocking. Services were held in the school
house until the present edifice was built and dedicated in
In addition to the church at Newbury, there were oc-
casional services held by itinerating Methodist ministers
from Virginia in various homes in the township but the
commencement of this part of the history was in 1820 when
a class of thirteen members was organized with Daniel
Goss as leader. Of this number two soon withdrew and
two were expelled leaving nine.
About this time a log meeting house was erected near
the Little Hocking about one mile north of Porterfield Sta-
tion, and in the vincinity of the home of Daniel Goss. All
traces of this building have disappeared.
The following statements are taken from historical
paper prepared by Mrs. C. L. McNeal and presented at a
Semi-Centennial Celebration in the village church.
In 1822 a class of twenty-one members met in the school
house on the farm of Joseph Newbury near the site of the
present Rockland Church with Joseph O'Neal leader.
(This was probably the same class just mentioned.)
In 1827 under the pastoral labors of LeRoy Swornstedt
seventeen members were added to the church. In Septem-
ber of this year a subscription paper was circulated for the
purpose of building a meeting house at Cedarville (now
Rockland) with the following unique heading: "We, the
undersigned subscribers, believe that it would be of import-
ance to the Methodist Society in Belpre to build a house of
worship, not only for their own convenience but for all
those that may be willing to attend. It is understood by all
those who are acquainted with the form of Methodist meet-
ing houses that the seats are free for those who do not be-
long to the Society in time of worship. We, the undersign-
ed do hereby agree to pay the amounts to our respective
names subscribed to the Trustees of the Methodist Church
in said township who may be appointed to superintend the
building of said meeting house, to be applied as they may
There were subscriptions from fifty cents to forty dol-
lars. One subscription of $4.50 was to be a hat — did not say
whether it was to be a ladies or man's hat. Another of
$5.00 was to be paid in nails.
About April 1st, 1832 work was commenced on the
proposed meeting house and the ninth day of June follow-
ing the third quarterly meeting was held in the building.
The work was greatly facilitated by the memorable flood of
1832 on which the lumber was floated by Daniel Ellenwood
from the mill on Little Hocking. This is memorable as
being the first building in Belpre township that was raised
without liquor, and at which there was neither accident,
nor want of help, notwithstanding the protest of many
people against the innovation.
In 1842 the Belpre Society consisted of seventy-five
members and was divided into two classes. Colbert O'Neal
was leader of Class No. 1 which met in the brick School
house on the plain not far from the present home of D. S.
Daniel Goss was leader of Class No. 2 which met in
In 1866 a house of worship was built in the growing
village of Belpre, at a cost of $6,500. This was dedicated
February 24, 1867 by Dr. Reid of Cincinnati. This build-
ing was called Lewis Chapel in honor of Frederick and
Mary Lewis, who contributed $1000 towa<*d its erection.
Josiah Henderson presented the Society with a bell at a
cost of $440. The lot was given by Mr. Hamilton Brown-
ing. The stones of the foundation were quarried and laid
in place by the late L. J. Finch, Leander Cunningham, and
Jack Simpson. The building was largely the work of Cal-
vin Leisure, E. E. Cunningham, and Colbert O'Neal.
The hanging of the bell was an event to at least one
small boy who had heard the minister say that the huge
bell when rung would say Come to Church! Come to
Church ! His patience was almost exhausted as he watched
it slowly lifted up and finally swung into place and to his
great surprise it rang just like any other bell, and he was
utterly disgusted with the whole thing and the preacher
most of all.
The first organ was purchased during the pastorate of
Rev. J. E. Sowers at a cost of $350.00. B. F. Stone do-
nating his commission of $75.00.
In 1869 the B. & 0. Railway Company paid to Lewis
Chapel $700.00 as dama}:':e for running within one hundred
feet of the building. By this means the Trustees were able
to pay the balance of debt on the building and organ.
During the pastorate of Rev. Grey Amherst the church
was repaired and the famous old gallery removed, the
parlors and vestibule added and a furnace put in.
During the pastorate of J. W. Orr the basement room
was enlarged, the floor cemented, the steps made, cement
walks laid, and a new bell secured.
In 1866 certain persons desiring to celebrate the Cen-
tennial of Methodism in this country started an enterprise
in the Northwestern part of the township which was nam-
ed the Centennial Church. A small house of worship was
erected which was afterwards turned into a dwelling. About
ten years later it was decided that this was an unnecessary
multiplication of churches and the members seem to have
been transferred to Little Hocking Church.
The Village and Rockland churches form a circuit and
are served by the same Pastor. The church at Little Hock-
ing is in a circuit with churches in Athens County.
The first Universalist Church in Belpre was organized
January 17, 1824 and embraced several leading families.
A house of worship was erected in 1835 in the Middle
Settlement near the Putnam home where services were
maintained for three quarters of a century. In 1852, sev-
eral members were dismissed from this church in order to
organize a branch church at Newbury near their homes.
This was called The Second Universalist Church of Belpre.
A convenient house of worship was erected on the hill
near the home of Judge Walter Curtiss. This building was
to be free for the use of all religious services when not
used by the Universalists. After about forty years it
seemed wise for the members of this church to transfer
their services to the village of Little Hocking. What ma-
terial from the old building was available was used in the
erection of a larger building at Little Hocking in 1891.
In 1912 the First Universalist Church abandoned their
house of worship near the Putnam home and constructed
an attractive building in Rockland. The same pastor sup-
plies both these churches.
These churches are now in a flourishing condition.
They have vigorous Sunday Schools also Ladies Aid and
Missionary Societies and are earnestly striving to extend
the Kingdom of God.
A Baptist church was organized at Little Hocking in
1889 and a house of worship built and dedicated 1892.
This church owed its existence quite largely to the in-
fluence of Dr. and Mrs. M. A. Villars. It was supplied for
some time by Rev. Watson Dana and considerably increased
The church is now supplied in connection with several
other churches in the vicinity.
There is a Sunday School in the Mullen School House,
a Mission of the First Baptist Church of Parkersburg, and
occasional preaching services are held there. The Sunday
School is well sustained.
AFRICAN METHODIST CHURCH.
There were but few colored people in Belpre previous
to the civil war. A colored man did not feel entirely safe
so near the border of a Slave State. After the War and
the abolition of slavery colored people gradually came in
to engage in various employments until they became quite
numerous, and they were usually law abiding and indus-
trious citizens and also desired to worship God. Though
usually made welcome in the churches they preferred to
worship by themselves and in 1868 an African Methodist
Church was organized. They worshipped for a time in the
room used by the colored school. In 1875 a house of wor-
ship was erected on Florence street. The church has in-
creased in numbers and importance and regular services
are held. They are supplied in connection with a church
A local preacher organized another colored church
here in 1870, which flourished for a time and they built a
house of worship on upper Walnut Street. This house was
occupied for several years but it was found difficult to sus-
tain two churches by the limited number of colored people
in the village. The building was considerably injured by
floods and about 1910 was sold and devoted to other uses.
Most of the colored people now worship with the church on
Saint Marys Roman Catholic Church was organized at
Little Hocking in 1879 and a neat frame Chapel built the
same year. Quite large congregations gather there from
the surrounding country. A Priest from Athens officiates.
A small frame chapel has been erected on upper Main
Street in the Village where occasional services are held.
Most of the Roman Catholics in the Village attend services
There was a very interesting girls Missionary Society
organized in 1831. This Society consisted of twenty-four
members twelve from Congregational families and twelve
from Methodist families.
Each member over twelve years old paid twelve and
one-half cents a year or what was then known as a shilling.
Members under twelve years of age gave six and one-quar-
ter cents, or sixpence, (silver coins were then in circulation
representing each of these sums.)
This Society continued for eight years and it is inter-
esting to record this early manifestation of friendliness be-
tween the children. The Congregational portion of the
money was given to help educate a boy in Ceylon; the
Methodist to Methodist mission work. Miss Elizabeth El-
lenwood, who died January 23 1915, aged ninety years
was a member of this Society.
There was a Ladies Society known as the Friendly
Group connected with the Congregational church for many
years which contributed a specified sum each year toward
the pastors salary, provided for a variety of repairs on
the church building and parsonage, sustained social gather-
ings, and was useful in many ways. This Society was
superceded by "The Ladies Aid" in 1898, which has con-
tinued the work so well commenced. Carpets have been
laid on floors, rooms have been painted and cleaned, ban-
quets provided for, and aid given to the poor during the
subsequent years. There are other similar organizations,
equally efficient, connected with the other church in Belpre,
and these are often united in branches of charitable work
which pertain to the whole community. It is true in all
Christian communities that in nearly all charitable work
first appeals are made to the churches. This is true because
the churches are always leaders in the unselfish work of
aiding the needy. In our civil war the churches of our
country united in sustaining the Christian Commission,
which contributed large sums of money to provide comforts
and care for soldiers in camps and hospitals.
During these years of intense suffering occasioned by
the terrible war in Europe appeals have been made to the
churches to aid the millions who have been made widows
and orphans or deprived of limbs or eyes through this
wicked war. We would not ovei'look or undervalue the
many and very generous contributions of organizations and
individuals outside the churches but we mention the charit-
able contributions of the churches because they are recog-
nized as representations of Christianity and not only from
their professions but from their practices the public have
reason to expect them to be leaders in good works, and at
the present time in all parts of our country they are con-
tributing to the aid of millions of those suffering from the
BURIAL OF THE DEAD.
The first death in Belpre was that of Captain Zebulon
King who was murdered by Indians May 1st, 1789 while
clearing the land on his claim. The place of his burial is
unknown. It is probable that his body and those of sev-
eral others who died during the first decade were buried
in private grounds. A cemetery was laid out very early on
the bluff a little below the site of the first log meeting
house, as this was about half a mile above Farmers Castle
it seems probable it was not laid out until after the Indian
War. Here are graves of most of the first settlers although
a part of the original ground has been carried away by the
river. The following inscriptions from the old cemetery
were obtained by E. B. Dana for A. T. Nye, Esq., previous
(1) — Over (or near?) this spot were buried Capt.
King, Jonas Davis, Mrs. Armstrong and her three children,
all of whom were massacred by the Indians in this vicinity.
Mrs. Armstrong and her children on the Virginia shore,
during the years 1791-5. This stone is erected to rescue
their names and fate from oblivion. Erected by George
(2) — To the memory of Col. Daniel Bent a native of
Mass. who died April 4, 1848. Aged 74 years.
Mary, wife of Col. Daniel Bent died June 10, 1851 in
the 84th year of her age.
(3) — Jonathan Stone, who departed this life March
24, 1801, in the 60th year of his age. A Captain and an ac-
tive officer in the American Revolutionary War, one of the
first settlers of this town. An affectionate husband, a ten-
der parent, beloved and respected by all who knew him.
(4) — Captain William Dana, a revolutionary soldier,
born in Massachusetts, emigrated to the west in 1788, and
settled in Belpre. Died in 1809 aged 69 years. Captain
Dana spent a part of the first year in Marietta, went to
Belpre in 1789.
Mary, wife of Captain William Dana, a native of Mass-
achusetts died in 1852, aged 79 years.
(5) — In memory of William Browning a native of
Massachusetts whence he emigrated to the then western
wilderness in 1789. He lived to behold, and contributed in
causing these valleys to give place to the arts and comforts
of civilized life. Died August 1825 aged 56.
In memory of Abigail Browning, wife of William
Browning and daughter of General Rufus Putnam, who de-
parted this life February 24, 1803, aged 35.
In memory of Mary Browning, wife of William
Browning Esq., formerly wife of Peregrene Foster, Esq.,
who died September 1825, aged 65 years.
(6) — Persis Howe, wife of Perley Howe, and daugh-
ter of Rufus Putnam (whose dust lies here) died Sept. A.
D. 1822 aged 55 years.
(7) — In memory of Jonathan Haskell, a native of
Massachusetts, who departed this life December 6, 1810
in the 62nd year of his age.
(8) — In memory of Daniel Loring, who died 31st July
1825, aged 73 years.
In memory of Mrs. Lucy Loring consort of Daniel
Loring, Esq., who died 8th of September, aged 75 years.
(9) — In memory of Major Robert Bradford who died
September 11, 1822 in the 72nd year of his age, was a revo-
lutionary officer and one of the first settlers in this county.
Captain and Mrs. Benjamin Miles were buried in this
cemetery but their graves could not be found.
The complete list of officers and soldiers of the Revolu-
tion buried in Belpre so far as known is as follows :
(1) — Captain William Dana of Charleston or Worcester
(2) — Major Jonathan Haskell born in Massachusetts. Com-
missioned Major in the regular service. Stationed
at Marietta 1791. Died 1810 aged 62 years.
(3) — Colonel Nathaniel Gushing; born near Boston, Mass.
(4) — Colonel Israel Putnam, born Salem, Mass. Served in
regiment with his father General Israel Putnam.
(5) — Captain Jonathan Stone. Born Braintree, Mass.
Served in Northern army under Gen. Rufus Putnam
and General Gates.
(6) — Colonel Alexander Oliver of Massachusetts.
(7) — Colonel Daniel Bent of Massachusetts.
(8) — Sherafiah Fletcher, soldier, Lowell, Mass.
(9) — Major Oliver Rice, Massachusetts.
(10) — Captain Benjamin Miles, Rutland, Mass.
(11) — Major Robert Bradford, Plymouth, Mass. Lineal
descendant of Governor Bradford.
(12) — Captain Zebulon King of Rhode Island, killed by
Indians in 1789 (old cemetery.)
(13) — Peregrene Foster from Rhode Island.
(14) — Noah Sparehawk.
These men were not only among the heroes who, by
their sacrifices, gave us the best country in the world, they
were the pioneers of our favored town of Belpre. They
deserve to be honored by their successors to the latest time.
The citizens of Belpre should secure the old cemetery from
all encroachments by a strong and durable fence and the
ground should be kept in such order that when the sons
and daughters of Belpre shall visit their old homes they
may not only walk among the graves of the honored dead
but may also tell their friends how faithfully the memory
of these heroes is kept fresh by the care of their resting
The first deaths in the Lower Settlement (Newbury)
were Mrs. Brown and child and Persis Dunham murdered
by Indians who were buried on the farm of Truman Guth-
rie near the river. Burials were made near this spot until
about 1825 when this cemetery was abandoned on account
of occasional floods and another opened on higher ground
near the school house. In 1871 the tomb stones were re-
moved from the old cemetery and a marble monument was
erected bearing this inscription.
"Anthony Spacht and wife Catharine, Hannah, wife
of Joseph Guthrie, Stratton, Leavens, Bliss, Dunham, one
woman and two children killed by Indians ; these and some
names not now remembered died and were buried on this
spot between 1790 and 1810. Erected by some of their
descendants as a token of their memory. Erected in 1871."
There is a small neighborhood cemetery about one and
one-half miles north of Porterfield station, used by families
in the vicinity.
The principal cemetery, now used by nearly the whole
township, is known as the Rockland cemetery. This was
laid out about 1821 and the old brick meeting house stood
within its bounds. After the organization of the Center
Belpre Church this building fell to them and after the erec-
tion of their house at Porterfield the old brick was demol-
ished. It is quite generally conceded that this was a mis-
take for a chapel is needed in every considerable cemetery
where services may be held for strangers and for bodies
brought from a distance, and the old building was well
adapted in size and locality for that purpose.
It has been suggested by some of our citizens that a
chapel should be erected in the Cemetery to be used when
needed. If the citizens should decide to build such chapel
we will take the liberty to suggest that it be erected as near
GEORGE A. HOWE
GEORGE HOWE BOWER
the site of this old building as possible and architecturally
be a duplicate of the Chapel built here in 1821.
This cemetery was considerably enlarged in 1895, and
in the nature of things the graves are constantly increasing
in number. A few revolutionary soldiers are buried here
and a large number of soldiers of our civil war. The beau-
tiful and patriotic services of decorating the graves of sol-
diers with flowers on May 30 is still performed and this
festival has been adopted by many who make it an occasion
for decorating graves of their friends.
One of our best loved American poets wrote:
"All that tread
The globe are but a handful to the tribes
That slumber in its bosom."
The number of those whose mortal bodies have been
deposited in Belpre Cemetery is even now larger than that
of those who occupy our homes and the former citizens who
shall return to this home town after absence of a score of
years will find more familiar names on tombstones than
familiar faces among those they meet.
It is a privilege as well as duty of those who are alive
to keep the place of the dead beautiful, and attractive and
it is a satisfaction to us while living to know that those
who follow us will continue to honor the memory of the
THE WOMANS READING CLUB
A considerable number of Belpre ladies met at the
home of Mrs. William Armstrong, October 18, 1904 for the
purpose of organizing a Ladies Literary Club. Mrs. F. L.
Haas was made temporary moderator and after a state-
ment by Mrs. Armstrong of the object of the meeting,
Madames L. H. Brown, George Gadsby and William Arm-
strong were appointed a nominating Committee who re
ported a board of officers as follows :
President Mrs. Charles L. McNeal
Vice-President Mrs. W. L. McMorris
Secretary Mrs. F. J. Prunty
Treasurer Mrs. J. B. Waterman
The following Constitution and By-Laws were adopt-
This Society shall be known as the Woman's Reading
The officers shall be a President, two Vice-Presidents,
Secretary, Treasurer, and two Directors. These shall con-
stitute an Executive Board or Board of Managers whose
duties shall be to assume general direction of the Club.
Each member is under obligation to perform, to the
best of her ability, any work assigned her by the Board of
Managers, unless satisfactory reason is given.
The Club shall meet every two weeks at 2:30 p. m.
beginning in October and continuing until April.
The dues shall be one dollar per year for each member.
Five members shall constitute a quorum to transact
The last meeting of the year shall be for the re-enroll-
ment of members and the enrollment of new members.
The first meeting in October and the first meeting in
January shall be for the enrollment of members.
A membership committee shall receive the names of
new members, and present them to the Club.
At this meeting it was decided to study Longfellow
and contemporaneous authors for a period of three months.
This Club now has a membership of about twenty and
is in a flourishing condition. The officers for the current
year (1918) are as follows:
President Mrs. F. J. Prunty
First Vice-President Mrs. H. F. Clark
Second Vice-President...Mrs. Chas. L. McNeal
Recording Secretary Mrs. Andrew Hall
Corresponding Secretary Mrs. R. R. Cutler
Treasurer Mrs. H. H. Glazier
Auditor Miss Josie O'Neil
At the close of the last year the funds remaining in
the treasury were donated to the Red Cross Society. The
subject for study for the present year is "Changing Amer-
This Club has had an instructive and increasingly in-
teresting career during the years of its existence. Its ex-
ercises have been well sustained and it is accomplishing an
important work for the rising generation. Early writers
speak of the pioneer ladies of Belpre as among the most
enterprising and intelligent of any community in the coun-
try and the success of this Club demonstrates the fact that
the present ladies are worthy successors of the pioneers.
The Daily Newspaper, the Telephone, the abundant
supply of magazines, supplementing the High School and
College, give to the ladies of the present much greater priv-
ileges than were possessed by the pioneers, and the success
of this Club, with many other things in the literary and
social activities of the community, are conclusive evidence
that the ladies of the present day are improving their op-
portunities. For several years this Literary Club has held
one meeting each year to which the public are invited and
this meeting is considered by the people as one of the most
important and profitable literary event of the community.
ROCKLAND READING CLUB.
About the year 1898, at the suggestion of Dr. F. P.
Ames, a few neighbors in Rockland met occasionally to
read and discuss the book entitled "Looking Backward by
Edward Bellany," which book was then attracting consid-
These meetings were continued with much interest and
a considerable number of current topics were considered.
After a few months the matter was systematized and for
some time the subject of general history was considered,
and the Rockland Reading Club was organized.
A little later the study of Poets and poetry was taken
up under the lead of Mrs. George Howe. Under the leader-
ship of this gifted teacher the meetings of the Club were
very much enjoyed and reading and study by the members
were greatly increased. The death of Mrs. Howe was a
great loss to the Society and the community but meetings
were continued until 1914. This Club furnishes evidence
of the intelligence and desire for social and intellectual im-
provement in the different portions of the town. At Cen-
ter Belpre the former pupils of the school formed an asso-
ciation several years ago and have had an annual banquet
with literary exercises which has been largely attended
and has strengthened the attachment of the people to each
other and to the neighborhood.
THE BELPRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
At the annual meeting of the Alumni of Belpre High
School in 1908 the matter of interesting the people in the
early history of the town and of marking historic localities
with permanent monuments was suggested and a commit-
tee was appointed to consider the matter. That commit-
tee met August 18th, 1908 at the home of Elmer L. Brown
where it was decided to form a permanent organization
and a committee was appointed consisting of Rev. C. E.
Dickinson, Dr. F. P. Ames and C. W. Dressell who should
present a name and prepare constitution and by-laws for
such an organization.
This same committee met again August 28th, heard
and approved a draft of Constitution and By-Laws and
resolved to call a meeting at the parlors of the Congrega-
tional Church for the purpose of organizing a society.
A public meeting was held at the place designated and
the following Constitution and By-Laws were adopted.
This Association, inaugurated by the action of the
Alumni Association of Belpre High School, shall be called
The Belpre Historical Society.
The objects of this Society shall be to substantially
mark historic localities, encourage historic research, collect
and preserve documents and relics, provide essays and ad-
dresses, and in all practical ways interest the people of
Belpre Township in local and other historical study.
(Ill — Members)
Any person may become a member, on the recommen-
dation of the Executive Committee, by a vote of the Society,
all members are expected to pay an annual fee of fifty cents,
any person may become a life member by the payment of
The officers of this Society shall be President, Vice-
President, Secretary and Treasurer, and Curator, and an
Executive Committee of five, consisting of the President,
Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, and two others.
The President, Vice-President, and Secretary and
Treasurer, shall perform the duties usually devolving on
such officers. The Curator shall have charge of the docu-
ments and relics deposited with the Society. The Execu-
tive Committee shall call special and public meetings and
arrange programs for the same, devise plans for raising
money and attend to all matters not otherwise provided for.
(VI — Annual Meeting)
The annual meeting for the election of officers and
the transaction of other business shall be held on the third
Thursday in September.
(VII— Term of Office)
All officers except those elected to fill vacancies shall
hold office for one year or until their successors are chosen.
Seven members shall constitute a quorum for the tran-
saction of business.
As soon as practicable the Society shall make provis-
ion to suitably mark the sites of Farmer's Castle, Stone's
Fort, Goodale's Fort, the first log meeting house, and other
sites which may be agreed upon.
As soon as the Society can secure a room, (in the
school building if possible) with suitable cases, we will
invite our citizens to deposit historic documents and relics.
The Executive Committee shall, if possible, arrange
for at least two public meetings each year with addresses,
essays, music, and such other exercises as may be provided.
As far as possible these meetings shall be held in different
parts of the township.
The Executive Committee may call special business
At each annual meeting an auditing committee shall
be appointed to audit the books of the Secretary and Trea-
The Constitution and By-Laws may be altered or
amended by the vote of two-thirds of the members present
at any business meeting.
At this meeting twenty-seven persons became mem-
bers of the Society.
Since the organization of the Society the Directors
have resorted to lectures and other entertainments, ban-
quets, for which the good ladies have donated provisions,
and individual gifts. These have so far supplemented the
annual dues that three substantial granite monuments have
been placed to mark important historic sites.
The first marks the site of Farmers Castle and
stands by the side of the public highway near the south-
west corner of the farm of F. E. Gilbert, Esq., This monu-
ment has the following inscription : "South on river bank
stood Farmers Castle, Home of Pioneer families during
Indian War 1791-1794. Erected by Belpre Historical So-
This monument was unveiled on November 3rd, 1910
by Miss Persis Putnam Howe a lineal descendant of Gen.
Rufus Putnam. A large number were present who then
repaired to the home of Dr. F. P. Ames where appropriate
services were held, and a banquet served.
A second Monument stands by the highway nearly in
front of the house erected by Col. Jonathan Stone in 1799
and still occupied by his descendants.
The inscription on this monument is as follows:
"South on river bank stood Stone's Fort. Built in 1793.
Including four blockhouses, a school room and several cab-
ins. Here dwelt Captain Jonathan Stone and four other
families during the remainder of the Indian War."
October 5, 1911, in the presence of a large concourse
of people. Miss Cornelia McGee, a descendant of Capt.
Stone, gracefully lifted the American flag which had cov-
ered the monument. Following this were very appropriate
services consisting of addresses and music.
In another part of this history we have an account of
the kidnapping of Major Nathan Goodale by the Indians,
and the third monument erected by this Society commem-
orates that event. It stands on the lot of the Porterfield
(Center Belpre) Congregational Church with the follow-
"In memory of Major Nathan Goodale, native of
Massachusetts, Revolutionary Officer, arrived in Ohio,
August 19, 1788. First Commandant in Farmers Castle.
Kidnapped by Indians on this farm March 1, 1793. Never
returned. Erected by Belpre Historical Society, 1914."
On August 19th, 1914 the one hundred and twenty-
sixth anniversary of the arrival of Major Goodale and
family in Ohio the Belpre Historical Society held a Field
Day in front of this monument, which was unveiled by
Miss Willia Cotton a representative of the Daughters of
the Revolution. W. M. Straus, Esq., of Parkersburg made
a very able address which was afterwards published in the
Marietta Register-Leader. Several other appropriate ad-
dresses were made and the ladies of the Center Belpre
Congregational Church provided a bountiful banquet for
In 1915 this Society asked for and received a Charter
of incorporation from the Department of State with the
following incorporators :
Rev. Cornelius E. Dickinson
Carrie Carpenter McNeal
Amos W. Shinn
A. Tupper Stone
Dr. Herbert S. Curtis
Nannie Porterfield Armstrong
This Charter enables the Society to hold property and
it is expected that they will secure deeds of the land on
which the several monuments are located.
At the time of the erection of this Porterfield Monu-
ment Hon. James Kilbourne, Mrs. Andrew Crotte, Mrs.
Wm. G. Deshler and Miss Alice K. Potter of Columbus,
Ohio, descendants of Maj. Goodale, made generous gifts to
the funds of the Society and they were made Honorary
members of the Society.
Although this Society has erected these three import-
ant monuments, it is hoped that its work is only well com-
menced. There are several other important sites to be
marked and such a Society is needed to keep alive in the
minds of the people of Belpre an interest in later as well
as the early facts in their history. A few relics, docu-
ments, and books have already been secured and it is to be
hoped that some former resident of Belpre or the descend-
ants of such residents, may make it possible to erect a
fire-proof library and relic building which shall help make
the coming generations like those of the past among the
most enterprising, progressive and intelligent people in
For the following interesting account of the origin of this
Fraternity among the 'pioneers we are indebted
to Charles L. McNeal, Esq.
Farmers Lodge F. & A. M., No. 20, Belpre, Ohio.
^ rri ^ HE first meeting according to the old records was
X rl ^ held January 23rd, 1812 and a part of the
^ f0 minutes are as follows:
■^^^1 The following brethren of Free and Ac-
cepted Masons met at the home of Brother Haskell. Bros.
Nathaniel Gushing, Samuel Nash, Oliver Rice, Jonathan
Haskell, Robert Bradford, William Leebody, Perley Howe,
Cyrus Ames, John Bennett, Ira W. Pier, and Daniel Lor-
ing. The brethren of the Ancient Graft present, taking
into consideration the benefits to be derived by the insti-
tution of Free Masonry, and calling to mind the advanced
age to which many of the brethren present have arrived,
the inconvenience and expense attending their meeting with
their brethren of American Union Lodge of Marietta of
which Lodge several of the brethren present are members,
and believing it to be their duty to contribute as much as
is in their power toward advancing the benefits accruing
from the institution, came to a unanimous resolution of
addressing a letter to the most Worshipful Grand Master
of the Grand Lodge of the State of Ohio, on the subject,
and on motion being adopted, Bros. Gushing, Rice, Nash,
Loring and Bennett were chosen a committee for the pur-
pose. Having attended to the business ol their appoint-
ment, on the 30th of January they draughted and signed
a letter to the Most Worshipful Brother Gass in which they
communicated the desire of the brethren of Belpre of con-
gregating together and of being authorized to work as a
regular Lodge at that place. At the same time inquiring
for information of the most worshipful, the regular mode
of procedure to obtain the charter, etc.
To which letter the brethren of Belpre received a polite
and friendly answer from their brother the Most Worship-
ful Grand Master bearing date of February 14, 181*^. In
consequence of which the brethren met at brother Has-
kells; those present were bros. Gushing, Nash, Rice, Has-
kell, Bradford, Leebody, Bennett, Ames, Pier and Loring.
Brother Gushing being called to the chair and Brother
Loring chosen Secretary, on motion the letter from the
Most Worshipful was read. At the same meeting, with
the full and entire approval of the brethren present, they
came to the unanimous resolution of petitioning for a dis-
pensation whereby they might legally congregate as a reg-
ular Lodge. On motion being seconded came a choice of a
Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens. On ex-
amination brother Nathaniel Gushing was duly elected the
Worshipful Master, brother Samuel Nash Senior Warden,
and brother Oliver Rice Junior Warden. On motion being
seconded it was agreed that a petition be draughted, sign-
ed and forwarded to the Most Worshipful Grand Master,
praying that a dispensation might be issued authorizing
the brethren of Belpre to congregate together as a regular
Lodge. The petition being draughted and signed by a suf-
ficient number of Master Masons and the names of the
Worshipful Master and Wardens elected inserted, it was
forwarded to the Most Worshipful Grand Master by Sen-
ior Warden, who on his return (the brethren of Belpre
having met at Brother Haskells) presented the brethren
with a dispensation from the Most Worshipful Grand
Master of the Lodge of Ohio, authorizing the brethren of
the Ancient Graft residing in Belpre to congregate as a
regular Lodge and granting to them the right and privi-
leges thereunto appertaining, they having promised a strict
adherance to the principles of Masonry as well as a strict
obedience to the regulations of the Grand Lodge.
The Lodge so established of Ancient York Masons to
be held in the township of Belpre and to be denominated
Farmers Lodge No. 20 and appointing brother Nathaniel
Gushing to be the first Master, brother Samuel Nash the
first Senior Warden and brother Oliver Rice the first Jun-
ior Warden, which dispensation continues in force until
the next meeting of the Grand Lodge of the State of Ohio,
dated the 7th day of March the year of redemption 1812
and of Masonry 5812 and signed Lewis Gass.
This dispensation in the original form has been pre-
served through all the years and is now the property of
Belpre Lodge No. 609.
This Ancient Lodge composed of a few staunch men
met at regular intervals and arranged their by-laws of
twenty-one articles by which their meetings were conduct-
ed until May, 1816 when the last minutes, now in posses-
sion of Lodge No. 609, were recorded.
We rather deplore the fact to-day that in order to
have a company of men get together there must be "eats"
but in the older days the interest of men must have been
reached through their stomachs for almost every meeting
when a bill was ordered paid the following items were
always included, House Room, firewood, candles, from eight
to tv^^enty-three suppers at 12 1-2 cents each, and from one
to two quarts of brandy.
Quite a lot of petitions, notes, and communications
are still being kept in the archives of Belpre Lodge, but
some of the last records must have been lost for many of
the papers bear a later date than 1816.
In September 1821 a communication was received from
the Grand Lodge as follows.
To all whom it may concern, I, John Snow, Grand
Master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, have appointed broth-
er George Dana agent for the Grand Lodge to collect all
dues by note or otherwise which are due the late Farmers
Lodge and hold the same subject to the order of the Grand
September 1, 1821.
This paper was prepared by brother Charles L. Mc-
Neal, Worshipful Master of Belpre Lodge No. 609, F. &
A. M., February, 1914.
It does not seem to be known how long this Lodge
The working tools, charts and aprons used by them
have been preserved and are in the rooms of the present
Lodge. For many years the members of this fraternity
residing in Belpre held their membership in Lodges in
Parkersburg or elsewhere.
Belpre Masons received a dispensation to form and
open a Lodge in Belpre from M. W. Grand Master, Harry
S. Kissell of the Grand Lodge of Ohio under the name of
Belpre Lodge 609.
BELPRE LODGE No. 609
The following eighteen Master Masons signed the pe-
tion for this Dispensation.
J. W. Cady Will W. Watson
Lee Cady Bruce G. Luzader
B. L. VanWinkle F. O. Balderson
F. J. Dressell A. J. Wigner
David Oliver S. A. Galbraith
Sandy Shafer J. A. Burnfield
F. D. Masters Fred A. Lang
B. J. Patton C. L. McNeal
W. F. Wood W. J. Wharton
The members were active from the beginning and
when the charter was received, October 11th, 1911 they
had raised seventeen Master Masons. Dr. B. L. VanWin-
kle was the first W. Master. F. 0. Balderson the first Sen-
ior Warden, C. L. McNeal the first Junior Warden. This
Lodge has continued active and embraces in its member-
ship many leading men of the community.
Belpre Lodge of Independent Order of Odd Fellows,
No. 619 was instituted August 10, 1875, by Joseph Lowell,
Grand Master. There were seven charter members, viz:
John Brown, David Oliver, J. R. King, B. W. Compton,
John B. Badger, A. F. Downer, and A. T. Shahan.
At the first meeting, John F. King, and L H. Hender-
son were admitted by card and George Dunbarger, L. M.
Cunningham, Joseph Richards and I. B. Kinkead were ini-
tiated. The following is a list of first officers:
John Brown, N. G.
David Oliver, V. G.
J. R. King, Sec.
B. W. Compton, Permanent Sec.
A. V. Downer, Treas.
I. H. Henderson, Warden.
James King, Conductor.
John F. King, Inside Guardian.
I. B. Kinkead, Right Supporter to N. G.
C. B. Ames, Left Supperter to N. G.
Joseph Richards, R. S. V. G.
John G. Waterman, L. S. V. G.
A. T. Shahan, R. S. S.
L. M. Cunningham, L. S. S.
The first meetings of the Lodge were held in Brown-
ings Building on Main Street just north of the Railroad.
In 1880 they removed to their spacious building on the
corner of Main Street and Blennerhassett Avenue which
they have since occupied. This Lodge has continued pros-
perous making considerable additions each year. The pres-
ent membership is seventy-eight. Each year they invite
a pastor of one of the village churches to preach for them
a special sermon at which time they are present in a body.
They also have a department for the ladies known as
Daughters of Rebeckah which is well sustained and includes
some of the leading ladies of the community.
STAR OF BELPRE LODGE
Star of Belpre No. 1910 Grand United Order of Odd
Fellows (colored) was organized in 187 — by the Naomi
Lodge of Parkersburg, West Va. with 31 charter members.
The first officers were:
H. G. Miller, N. G.
R. W. Whiteman, Permanent Sec.
David Tucker, Noble Father.
George Williams, Elective Sec.
J. W. Scott, Treas.
Robert Williams, Chaplain.
Harmon Boggs, P. N. G.
BELPRE TENT No. 541, KNIGHTS OF THE
Belpre Tent No. 541 Knights of the Maccabees was
instituted by A. W. Shinn, D. G. C of McConnelsville, O.
January 8th, 1906 with the following Officers :
W. E. Cox, Sir Knight, P. C.
M. I. Keltum, Sir Knight, Com.
S. S. Ford, Sir Knight, Lieut. Com.
Dr. J. V. Athey, R. K.
C. G. Dixon, Chaplain.
Isaac Taylor, Sergt.
B. L. VanWinkle, Sir Knight, Physician.
George Northrop, Sir Knight, M. at A.
Pearl Northrop, Sir Knight, 1st M. of G.
A. L. Allen, Sir Knight, 2nd M. of G.
Scott Charter, Sir Knight, Sent.
C. M. Hutchison, Sir Knight, Picket.
The tent now has a membership of sixty-five. Only
three charter members now hold membership here. Pres-
ent officers are:
F. R. Wigner, Sir Knight, P. C.
C. C. Miller, Sir Knight, Com.
D. M. Brookhart, Sir Knight, Lieut. Com.
C. K. Brookhart, Sir Knight, R. K.
J. G. Bennett, Sir Knight, Chaplain.
B. L. VanWinkle, Sir Knight, Physician.
Clyde Hawk, Sir Knight, Sergt.
B. F. Tonkins, Sir Knight, M. at A.
G. H. Williams, Sir Knight, 1st M. of G.
C. L. Christopher, Sir Knight, 2nd M. of G.
E. L. Wigner, Sir Knight, Sentinel.
The members carry a total of $49,000 life insurance.
There is also a sick and accident feature of the or-
ganization which pays eight dollars a week. Most of the
members carry this .
KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS.
Blennerhassett Lodge of Knights of Pythias was insti-
tuted July 8th, 1889 and was one of the first fraternal or-
ganizations in Belpre. The first officers and members were
F. P. Ames, C. C.
D. R. Rood, V. C.
J. F. Steele, Prelate.
C. B. Ballard, M. at A.
L. H. Brown, K. R. and S.
D. M. Alderman, M. of E.
W. L. McMorris, M. of F.
F. L. Simpson, I. G.
Millard Hamilton, O. G.
P. S. Cole, P. C.
Members: — F. J. Dressell, W. C. Lockwood, A. T.
Stone, H. G. Stone, G. W. Gandee, J. W. Cady, 0. L. Davis,
G. M. O'Neal, W. J. Wharton, H. S. Curtis, H. T. Curtis,
Will M. Coe, T. C. McTaggart, J. C. Malster, Frank Bos-
This lodjre has prospered from the beginning and has
been a benefit to its members Of the twenty-five charter
members, twenty-two are now living and ten are still
members of the lodge. Others have been transferred to
There are also persons in Belpre who belong to several
other organizations in Parkersburg. It would seem to a
layman that fraternal organizations are divided into about
as many sects as our churches, but as we observe that per-
sons often belong to several organizations we conclude that
their objects are somewhat different and assume that they
all aim to confer benefits on their fellow men.
LITTLE HOCKING GRANGE
The Little Hocking Grange, No. 873, was organized
May 1, 1874, and since that time has exerted a very im-
portant influence in the community. It has been decidedly
helpful, not only in out door life but also in the homes, it
has been a center of charitable work. During the Euro-
pean War its hall has been opened as a work room for the
Red Cross and for other war work meetings. Its present
membership is about fifty and the official list for 1918 is
Master, C. D. Robinson.
Overseer, S. B. Oakes.
Lecturer, A. S. Phelps.
Steward, E. T. McPherson.
Assistant Steward, W. R. Woodburn.
Lady Assistant Steward, Mrs. Julia Woodburn.
Chaplain, B. S. Cunningham.
Treasurer, C. W. Oakes.
Secretary, J. R. Cole.
MRS. WILLIAM ARMSTRONG
MRS. SUSAN W. DICKINSON
Gatekeeper, J. R. Giddings,
Pomona, Grace Robinson.
Ceres, Mrs. McPherson.
Flora, Edith Watson.
Organist, Elizabeth Oakes.
Legislative Committee, F. P. Ames, (deceased).
Business Agent, J. R, Cole.
The regular printed program for the year 1918 em-
braces an extensive list of practical subjects to be consid-
ered at the meetings, which are held twice each month.
Those for two meetings in November may be given as
Heating the home with a view of saving fuel L. E. Wells
Do you think it wise to make an effort to keep boys
and girls on the farm? _
...„ Mrs. Oakes, Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Stone.
What a boy should be taught S. F. Stone, G. K. Thorp
Getting ready for winter in the Poultry Yard
My Duty to my Community Roll Call
The Value of a farm Workshop
Eugene Brewster, J. R. Giddings
The True Standard of Success Lena Brewster
House work in Winter Mrs. Wells, Mrs. Cole
Top Dressing Winter Wheat H. N. Curtis, J. G. Coggshall
The treatment of practical subjects like these by in-
telligent men and women must be a continual uplift to the
intellectual and social as well as agricultural condition of
the community. We hope the Little Hocking Grange may
continue and increase its good work.
THE EUROPEAN WAR
4^^«|v^N Sunday afternoon, July 12th, 1914, the writer
% Vi/ «I held an open air service in Belpre at which
^ ^ time a description was given of "The Christ
—^^4— of the Andes," a granite monument which had
been erected in the mountains between the Argentine Re-
public and Chile, intended to be for the inhabitants of
these two countries and their successors a constant pledge
of peace and a promise that differences of opinion, like
those which in former years had caused wars, should be
settled in a Christian manner by arbitration, and on that
occasion this was commended as a desirable compact to be
made between nations.
Allusions were also made to the Peace Conventions
which had been held at the Hague, and the opinion was
expressed that the principles of the religion of "the Prince
of Peace" were so far advanced among Christian nations,
that such nations were not likely to engage in wars in the
future. This sentiment was approved by the hearers and
was probably at that time the opinion of the good people
of our own and other countries. It was known by those
informed respecting current events that Germany had drill-
ed and equipped its citizens to such an extent that a vast
army could be mobilized and prepared for active service
within a few days. Articles had appeared in magazines
describing Germany's "war machine" but it was generally
supposed this was the result of perfecting their theory of
Militarism rather than a preparation for immediate war.
It is probably true that the leading statesmen of Europe
supposed that these preparations meant war some time in
the future, but that they did not anticipate an immediate
war is evident from the fact that other nations had made
very little counter preparations for war. It has been since
sho"WTi that a week before that open air service a secret
meeting was held in Berlin at which time Kaiser William
11 and his votaries planned a great world war and agreed
upon the manner and time of its inauguration. The plan
as has been shown by indubitable evidence, was for Ger-
many and her allied power, Austria, to invade Belgium
and France before other nations were prepared to resist,
conquer Paris and extort "four times as much indemnity"
as in 1871, and then attack Russia.
Under the benign favors of Divine Providence these
plans did not succeed in their details but a war was in-
augurated, the most unnecessary, extensive, bloody and
barbarous war that the world has ever seen, and involved
nearly the whole civilized world. This continued more than
four years. It is estimated that 8,000,000 men have been
slaughtered, equal to twice the population of Ohio,
and probably three times that number partially or
whollv disabled by wounds. In addition to this the expense
of the war has "been at least $200,000,000,000, and the
national debts of the leading nations have been increased
six fold, and now equal nearly one third the total value of
all property in these countries at the beginning of the war.
Pictures of the barbarities practiced during these years
are too terrible to be minutely described. They include vil-
lages and cities razed to the ground : cathedrals, and other
historic buildings, libraries, and museums of art ruthlessly
destroyed : immense tracts of cultivated land denuded of
crops, fruit and shade trees, coal mines flooded and render-
ed inoperative, all involving immense pecuniary losses not
embraced in the expenditures given above; old men, women
and children, murdered in their homes, shot down in the
streets, or drowned in sunken ships : many others torn from
homes and friends and taken away as slaves to foreign
Our country remained neutral for about two and one-
half years, during which time Germany continually harass-
ed us by acts of war. She employed spies and secret
agents in our midst who destroyed our munition plants,
causing a loss of many lives and millions of dollars: she
placed time bombs in our ships to explode and destrov them
in mid ocean ; she sent agents into friendly countries to
incite them to make war upon us ; she sank our ships with-
out warning, sometimes "without trace" slaughterincr many
innocent victims, until in April, 1917 Congress, at the call
of President Wilson, declared that Germany had inaugurat-
ed war against us, and preparation was at once commenced
for defense. As time has advanced many pictures have
been vividly brought to our minds. In one of these we
may see a widow with an only child, a son, whom she has
educated by her own exertions and fitted him for business
which he has already entered with promise of a successful
career, and he is beginning to lighten the burdens of his
mother, who anticipates that he will be her solace and
support in her declining years. The call comes for soldiers
and he, prompted by patriotism, enters the service of his
country and of humanity, and, — there is an unknown grave
"somewhere in France" and this widow is alone in her
This picture, with slight variations, describes condi-
tions in millions of homes in the countries at war and for
what? Impartial historians will write the answer. We
may now see that this war illustrates as emphatically as
any epoch of history the contrast between two principles
of human action. To he served and to serve.
A Selfish Autocrat was overmastered by an ambition to
become the most served man in the world ; as described by
his followers he aspired to "world empire." He so educat-
ed his subjects for a generation that they were willing to
put forth herculean efforts to secure for their ruler this
service. They have accepted him as one ruling by Divine
authority, they have accepted from him false statements
as true, and have carried forward this war for four years.
All the Allies who are opposed to the Emperor in this
wicked war are governed by the opposite principle of ser-
vice. Belgium and France have been invaded, devastated,
and burglarized by their brutal neighbors. With them this
is a war of self-defense in which they are serving by con-
tending for their countries and their homes, they are also
serving mankind as well as themselves. Other powers,
Great Britain and the United States, are in the war as
Allies. These nations have announced to the enemy and to
the world that they do not seek territory, nor indemnity.
They found their neighbors like the man Jesus described
on the Jericho road, robbed, wounded, and "half dead," and
came to serve them in their need. They have called into
service millions of young men, the strength of the nations,
and have furnished billions of dollars and the people at
home have vied with the soldiers in service. They have
poured out their money without stint in Liberty Bonds,
Red Cross, Y, M. C. A., and other Christian and patriotic
enterprises. They have not only denied themselves luxur-
ies they have also observed meatless days, and wheatless
days and sugarless days, that they may more fully serve
their Allies with needed food. We do not claim to possess
prophet knowledge or power, but we believe in an Almighty
Ruler of the Universe, who during all the history of our
world has exemplified the divinity of service by serving
our race, and we could not believe that, in this twentieth
Christian Century, he could allow the principle of ''being
served" to finally triumph over the principle of "service."
We are taught in the Scriptures, as well as in history, that
nations like disobedient children some times deserve chas-
tisement, an inspired Prophet has written "For when thy
judgments are in the earth the inhabitants of the world will
learn righteousness" and we have confidently believed that
when the nations have learned the needed lesson our Heav-
enly Father would give us a peace in righteousness, and
not the least important lesson the people of the world will
learn from this war will be the divinity of service.
From the beginning of the war the people of Belpre
shared with fellow citizens of our Republics in reading the
daily papers and forming intelligent opinions respecting
the principles involved in the conflict. When war was
formally recognized, April 5th, 1917, the people began to
make preparation to perform their share of service.
A County Red Cross Society was organized at Mar-
ietta in April, 1917 and a branch was formed at Belpre,
June 5th with the following officers : John Dana, President,
Dr. F. P. Ames, Vice-President and Mrs. F. J. Prunty,
Secretary and Treasurer. After a brief period of canvass
ing for memberships a work room was established and
placed under the care of Mesdames, H. H. Glazier, P. H.
Knee, and F. S. Gaskell. All day meetings have been held
each week at this room and these have been well attended
and the day devoted to diligent work. Similar meetings
have been held in Rockland, Porterfield, and Little Hock-
ing. These ladies have sent to the central rooms at Mar-
ietta five hundred finished garments including pajamas
and hospital shirts. In addition to these the knitting of
sweaters, socks, and wristlets has been constantly going on
in the homes in all parts of the town. Besides the gar-
ments sent to the Red Cross rooms many have been pre-
pared for the boys of the community who have entered the
service for civilization and liberty. The making of trench
slippers and Belgian relief garments have also engaged
many including young girls. Willing workers have been
found in all departments where help has been needed and
the good work continued to the end of the war.
The present membership of the Red Cross is about
six hundred and the receipts have amounted to about
$1400.00. In addition to this $1635.55 has been paid to
the Society as the result of the war drive of 1918 and a
generous amount has been given to the Y. M. C. A. Other
calls for Christian service have been answered by the
churches and individuals and considerable contributions
have been made by citizens traveling or working elsewhere.
Generous subscriptions have been made by the people
of Belpre to all the issues of Liberty Bonds.
The united war fund in autumn of 1918 was $1672.44.
It was the policy of the German military leaders when
acting on the offensive to make long and elaborate prepara-
tions and then inaugurate an extensive drive. This was
their method as long as their superiority of numbers made
it necessary for the Allies to continue on the defensive. In
the Spring of 1918 they made two such drives which were
reasonably successful and caused both Great Britain and
France to call upon the United States to hasten forward
their soldiers. This call was heeded and all the transports
available were called into service.
In July the Germans prepared their armaments and se-
lected their best divisions of "shock soldiers" to make a
powerful drive which they hoped would end the war in their
Previous to this Marshall Ferdinand Foch had been
appointed to the Supreme Command of all the Allied ar-
mies. The Marshall made a careful study of the whole
situation and the forces under his control. The result was
that he arranged and solidified his forces for an offensive
campaign. About a quarter of a million of American sol-
diers were already in France and others were arriving as
rapidly as transportation could be provided. These men
were brigaded with soldiers from other countries, or collect-
ed into American units and rendered ellicient aid. These ef-
forts greatly increased the morale as well as the fighting
force of the Allies and discouraged their enemies. When
the Germans, after large preparation, made their last offen-
sive movement, with the intention of reaching Paris or the
English Channel or both, they were met by the Allied armies
at Chateau Thierry and were faced about so as to look
toward Berlin instead of Paris and the American troups
bore an important part in making this change of direction.
From this time the Allied armies were constantly in-
creased by arrivals from America and Marshall Foch's
tactics changed from defensive to offensive and instead of
long pauses for preparation he made his offensive move-
ments continuous. This was a surprise to the German lead-
ers and one for w^hich they were not prepared. As a result
the Allies made gains in prisoners and territory nearly
every day. This marked a turning point in the war and
from that time gains were made by the Allies not only in
France and Belgium but also in Italy, the Balkan States
The Central powers soon became so weakened that on
September 30, Bulgaria was ready to make an uncondition-
al surrender. This was followed by a surrender by Turkey,
October 31 and by Austria Hungary, November 4th.
It was evident about this time that the plans of Mar-
shall Foch were likely to so far envelop the German army
as to secure a very extensive victory. The German leaders
seem to have become aware of this which led them hastily
to secure an Armistice which was signed and on November
11 the fighting ceased. The transportation of troops had
so much increased that there were in France at that time
about a million and a half of men in the various branches
of the United States service and two millions more were
under training in cantonments in this country.
Most of these men were in peaceful employments
twelve months earlier and knew nothing of military tactics,
but within this brief period of time had become as efficient
soldiers as Germans who had received military training
from childhood. This fact seems to prove, that, even if
wars should continue in future years, it is not necessary
that intelligent citizens of a Republic should receive long
training in order to become good soldiers.
A Congress is already in session which is expected to
fix upon conditions of peace, and it is our sincere hope
and prayer that they may in some way bring about such
a league of nations as will prevent wars in the future.
Whatever may have been the ambition of German lead-
ers for world power, it is evident that if they had been as
unprepared as other European nations this war would not
have been inaugurated as it was.
We are justified in the assertion that this war with all
its terrible consequences is the direct result of German
It seems to us that the present generation should labor
to destroy militarism here, in Germany, and throughout the
The final "Treaty of Peace" was signed in the famous
"Galerie des Glaces" (Hall of Mirrors) in the Versailles
Palace on Saturday June 28, 1919 at 3 P. M. The scene
is described in Current History Magazine for August,
1919, as follows:
"M. Clemeceau as President of the Peace Conference
opened the ceremony. Rising he made the following brief
address, amid dead silence: 'The session is open. The
Allied and associated powers on one side and the German
Reich on the other side have come to an agreement on the
conditions of peace. The text has been completed, drafted,
and the President of the Conference has stated in writing
that the text that is about to be signed now is identical
with the 200 copies that have been delivered to the German
delegation. The signatures will be given now and they
amount to a solemn undertaking faithfully and loyally to
execute the conditions embodied by this treaty of peace.
I now invite the delegates of the German Reich to sign the
"There was a tense pause for a moment. Then in re-
sponse to M. Clemenceau's bidding the German delegates
rose without a word, and, escorted by William Martin,
Master of Ceremonies, moved to the signatory table where
they placed upon the treaty the sign manuals which Ger-
man Government leaders had declared over and over again
with emphasis and anger would never be appended to the
treaty. They also signed a protocol covering changes in
the document and the Polish undertakings. All three doc-
uments were similarly signed by the allied deputies who
WILSON SIGNS NEXT.
"When the German delegates regained their seats after
signing, President Wilson immediately rose, and, followed
by the other American plenipotentiaries, moved around the
sides of the horse shoe to the signature tables. It was
thus President Wilson and not M. Clemenceau, who was the
first of the Allied delegates to sign. This however was
purely what may be called an alphabetical honor, in accord-
nace with the order in which they were named in the pro-
logue to the treaty. Premier Lloyd George with the Brit-
ish delegation came next. The British dominions followed.
M. Clemenceau with the French delegation was next to him.
Then came Baron Saionji and the other Japanese delegates,
and they in turn were followed by the representatives of
the smaller powers. * * * The great war which for five
long years had shaken Europe and the World was formally
ended at last. It was a war which had cost the beligerent
nations $185,000,000,000; which had caused the death of
7,582,000 human beings and which had left the world a
post-war burden of debt amounting to $135,000,000,000.
It was a war which had changed the whole face of Europe,
which had brought many new nations into existence, which
had revolutionized the organization of all national and in-
ternational life. It was a war which had brought the world
the consciousness of its common obligation to unite against
all war. The booming of the great guns of Versailles seem-
ed to proclaim a new epoch."
"Simultaneously with the signing of Peace, President
Wilson cabled the following address to the American
people, which was given out at once in Washington by Sec-
"My Fellow Countrymen, the treaty of peace has been
signed. If it is ratified and acted upon in full and sincere
execution of its terms it will furnish the charter for a new
order of affairs in the world. It is a severe treaty in the
duties and penalties it imposes upon Germany; but it is
severe only because great wrongs done by Germany are
to be righted and repaired; it imposes nothing that Ger-
many can not do ; and she can regain her rightful standing
in the world by the prompt and honorable fulfillment of its
terms. And it is much more than a treaty of peace with
Germany. It liberates great peoples who have never before
been able to find the way to liberty. It ends, once for all,
an old and intolerable order under which small groups of
selfish men could use the people of small empires to serve
their ambition for power and dominion. It associates the
free governments of the world in a permanent league in
which they are pledged to use their united power to main-
tain peace by maintaining right and justice. It makes in-
ternational law a reality supported by imperative sanctions.
It does away with the right of conquest and rejects the
policy of annexation, and substitutes a new order under
which backward nations — populations which have not yet
come to political consciousness, and people who are
ready for independence but not yet quite prepared to dis-
pense with protection and guidance — shall no more be sub-
jected to the domination and exploitation of a stronger
nation, but shall be put under the friendly direction and
afforded the helpful assistance of Governments which un-
dertake to be responsible to the opinion of mankind in the
execution of their task by accepting the direction of the
League of Nations.
It recognizes the inalienable rights of nationality, the
rights of minorities and the sanction of religious belief and
practice. It lays the basis for conventions which shall free
the commercial intercourse of the world from unjust and
vexatious restrictions and for every sort of international
co-operation that will serve to cleanse the life of the world
land facilitate the common action in beneficient service of
every kind. It furnishes guarantees such as were never
given or even contemplated for the fair treatment of all
who labor at the daily tasks of the world. It is for this
reason that I have spoken of it as a great charter for a
new order of affairs. There is ground here for deep sat-
isfection, universal reassurance, and confident hope."
The new era here described is just commencing as
these words are promulgated. The Germans made very
bitter complaint at what they consider the severe condi-
tions they are compelled to sign. It appears to the present
writer that in view of the devastations wrought by the war
future historians are more likely to emphasize the leniency
than the severity of these conditions.
ROLL OF HONOR
We have found it very difTicult to secure a complete
list of those who have entered the United States Service.
A part of these have volunteered at different times and a
part have been drafted. There are four post oflices in the
township and by our method of distributing mail persons
do not all receive mail from the town in which they live.
We are glad to give the Roll of Honor as complete as we
have been able to make it.
James E. Anderson
Dennis V. Bailey
Anvil Clair Bradley
Earnest W. Brownfield
Dallas Earl Bliss
Loring E. Coe
John Kenneth Christopher
LeRoy A. Criss
William T. Criss
Charles R. Delo
John Coggshall Dutton
E. Creel Gainor, Lieut.
James Gandee, Lieut.
Arthur Glazier, Lieut.
J. David Hupp
George E. Jolley, Lieut.
Ray Sinza Lee
Jrovanni A. Liberatore
George Crocket Lynn
Edward D. Matheny
George Lewis Maley
Earl Clifford Mars
Benjamin F, Milton
Charles M. Mulligan
William P. Mulligan
Lewis M. Nicholas
Galen Virgil Phelps
Charles H. Pryor
Edward Pryor, Jr.
Cecil B. Pride
Elmer E. Robinson
George Bennett Stone
Harry S. Sprague
David A. Swesey
Henry A. Thorn
Harry R. Van Dyke
Pearl A. Weaver
When fighting ceased November 11, 1918, as a result
of the Armistice, part of these men were in France and pan
were still in training cantonments in this country.
The first man from Belpre who fell as a martyr to the
cause of world freedom was John Kenneth Christopher
who was killed at Chateau Thierry, A little later Frank
Browning died in hospital from Pneumonia induced by a
gun shot wound. These were our martyrs.
OLIVER RICE LORING
T^HIS account of Mr. Loring is taken from Wil-
li Hams' History of Washington County, page 524
^ Daniel Loring, the father of the Loring
:^- family of this county emigrated from Massa-
chusetts to Ohio during the early period of settlement. He
had married, at Sudbury, Massachusetts, in "Way Side Inn,"
a Miss Howe, one of the family which for generations had
presided at that historic place, now celebrated in American
poetry. She died before the settlement of Marietta, leav-
ing three children who accompanied their father to the
west, viz: Isreal, Charlotte, (wife of A. W. Putnam) and
Ezekiel. He married for his second wife, Mrs. Rice of
Belpre township, and by her had four children, the young-
est of whom was Oliver Rice, whose portrait appears above.
Daniel Loring was the head of the church at Sudbury, and
after coming to Belpre was commonly known as "Priest
Loring." He was one of the founders of Universalism in
Belpre and was also prominent among the early Masons.
He held the office of Justice of the Peace for nearly two
decades. This was at a period when the best and most in-
telligent men were elected to the magistracy. The death
of Daniel Loring occurred during the sickly season of 1822
Oliver Rice Loring was born June 17, 1790. During
his youth he received the best instruction the neighborhood
afforded, which at the present day would not be considered
more than that of a secondary school. He was sent to Athens
a short time to "complete his course" in grammar, Arith-
metic, Geography and other common branches. He mar-
ried for his first wife Fanny Warren and settled on the
homestead. She died in 1827, and the following year he
married Orinda Howe who was born in 1799 and died in
1889. Mr. Loring held the Office of Associate Judge of the
Court of Common Pleas and was highly complimented by
older members of the bar as an officer. He held the office
of Ensign of Militia about the time of the War of 1812,
and at various times local township offices. He was for
many years a Whig leader in that end of the County and
was one of the council which frequently met in Joseph Hol-
dens Store in Marietta, and was sardonically designated by
John Brophy and his Democratic friends as "Joe Holden's
Judge Loring was a man of strong sense, and always
had a certain influence in the community. He was reserv-
ed in his manners, and never sought notoriety. He died
November 21, 1873.
DR. FRANKLIN P. AMES
Dr. Franklin P. Ames, son of Cyrus and Sarah P.
Ames, was born in Belpre, November 6th, 1852. He was
descended from Cyrus and Mary Ames who settled in Bel-
pre about 1800. Dr. Ames \vas a pupil in Belpre Academy
before the establishment of the High School, and graduated
from Marietta College in 1877. He devoted several years
to teaching in Belpre Village High School and in other
places, and secured a medical Diploma from Cleveland
Homeopathic College. He practiced medicine in Belpre in
connection with his farm, though the latter has claimed
most of his attention in later years. He was an intelligent
and enterprising citizen and held a number of important
township and county offices. He was active in the Little
Hocking Grange and a Charter member of the Knights of
Pythias Lodge of Belpre Village. He w^as a member and
generous supporter of the Universalist Church, also one of
the organizers and most faithful supporters of the Belpre
Historical Society. When he learned that a History of
Belpre was being prepared he was very much interested in
its publication and knowing of the present great advance
in the cost of both material and labor he donated $100.00
to aid in its publication. Without this timely aid the book
would probably not have been published at the present
time, perhaps never. The people of Belpre owe a lasting
tribute of gratitude to this public spirited citizen who died
July 3rd, 1918 before he had seen this book except in man-
HON. A. W. GLAZIER.
Hon. A. W. Glazier was born and reared on a farm
near Amesville, Athens County, Ohio. He was educated in
the common schools and select schools of that time and
was for some time a teacher. While a young man he en-
gaged for three years in general merchandising at Urbana,
Ohio. About this time he married Miss Mary Wyatt Hide
of Millfield, Athens County, and settled on a farm a hali
mile south of the village of Amesville. Soon after this he
united with the Presbyterian Church and was elected an
Elder, which office he held until his removal to Belpre in
1876. In Belpre he became an efficient member of the
Congregational Church of which he was deacon, respected
and beloved, during the remainder of his life. At one time
he engaged for a few years in manufacturing but continued
to manage his farm and considered himself a farmer. He
held various official positions at various times, Justice of
the Peace, land appraiser, member of the Board of Ohio
University at Athens, and represented his district, the four-
teenth, in the State Senate for 1886 and 1887. In this
capacity he was recognized as a faithful and intelligent
legislator. He was a man of strict integrity and sterling
character and always interested and active in every move-
ment which promoted a high standard of character. He
was active in promoting temperance and every thing that
improved the community. October 31st, 1901, Mr. atid.
Mrs. Glazier celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their
marriage at which time a host of friends expressed to them
their congratulations and good wishes. For ten years he
was incapacitated for active duties from an attack of par-
alysis. His mind was still active and he was a wise coun-
selor in both civil and church matters. He was tenderly
cared for by his wife and children until his death in 1908.
Mrs. Glazier survived him for several years. She died in
GEORGE AUGUSTUS HOWE
George Augustus Howe, a well known and influential
citizen of Washington County, was born in Belpre, Oct. 1,
1838, on the old Howe homestead where he has spent his
life. His grandfather. Captain Perley Howe, was a native
of Killingsley, Conn, and was one of the early settlers in
Belpre. He married Persis, daughter of General Rufus
Putnam, in 1798. He was commissioned Captain of the
First Brigade, Third Division, of Washington County Mili-
tia, in 1803. At the time of Aaron Burr's Conspiracy his
Company stood guard, and Captain Howe was a juror in
CORPORAL JOHN KENNETH CHRISTOPHLR
the case. He was a teacher for many years, first in the
old Stockade at Marietta, and later at Belpre, and often
called "Master Howe." He was one of the founders of the
Belpre Congrreg:ational Church and the first Deacon, an
oflfice he held until his death in 1855, at the age of eighty-
eight. His son, Rufus William Howe, was born and spent
his life on the Howe farm. In his youth he attended Mar-
ietta Academy and boarded in the family of his grand-fath-
er, Gen. Rufus Putnam. He married Lucy Eastman in
1833. She died September 22, 1834. He married for his
second wife, Polly Proctor of Watertown, who was the
mother of four children: viz. Joseph Perley, George, Au-
gustus, Rufus William and Persis Putnam. He was a
faithful member of the Congregational Church and being
gifted as a musician he served as chorister forty-four years.
He died July 24th, 1865.
George Augustus Howe, the second son of Rufus Wil-
liam, is the only member of the family now living. Be-
sides the home schools he was educated in Amesville Acad-
emy. Plans were perfected for him to enter the law office
of Judge Greene at Marietta, but the untimely death of the
latter and the failing health of his father made it necessary
for him to abandon this cherished hope, and he entered into
partnership with his father on the farm.
When President Abraham Lincoln called for Volun-
teers at the beginning of the Civil War, 1861, Mr. Howe
first entered the service, as a member of the Ohio National
Guards, Company A, 46th Regiment, and served on guard
duty for three months, after which he was honorably dis-
charged. When President Lincoln issued another call for
200,000 men he again left his crops and aged father, and
became a member of Co. H, 148 Regiment, Ohio Volunteers,
serving faithfully as Corporal, until honorably discharged,
September 14, 1864. Only four of one hundred and ten
men in his company still survive. Mr. Howe was married
to Charlotte Ann Wyatt, of Amesville, October 25, 1865.
To them were born five children, Charlotte Wyatt, Mary
Emily, Persis Putnam, also Blanche and Jessie who died
in infancy; the others still survive. Mrs. Howe died Nov-
ember 5, 1878 and several years later Mr. Howe married
Mary Stella Vance Chapman of College Hill, Hamilton
County, Ohio, who was very active in the work of the Con-
gregational church and president of its Missionary Society
until her death in 1904. Mr. Howe has been a life long and
active member and supporter of the Congregational Church
and served as one of the Trustees until failing health pre-
vented him from performing this service.
For several years he has been a "shut in" during most
of the Winter months but he has a wide reputation for
never failing cheerfulness and genuine old time hospitality,
and is always interested and willing to aid in whatever
makes for the betterment of his fellow men. Mr. Howe
died August 10, 1919, while this book was in press.
GEORGE HOWE BOWER
George Howe Bower was bom September 19, 1892 in
Belpre, Ohio, at the home of his grandfather, George A.
Howe; and this first home, was ever the dearest spot on
earth to him, loving the old farm with a true affection. He
found keen enjoyment in everything connected with it and
being a lover of nature, he "Found tongues in trees; books
in the running brooks; Sermons in stones; and good in
It was in this home that the parents early had the
little golden haired boy baptized and consecrated his life
to the Master. While quite young he became a follower of
Christ, and united with the Presbyterian Church at Sisters-
ville, W. Va. Later when he came to make his home at
Parkersburg, W. Va., he united with the Presbyterian
Church of that city.
He received most of his education in the Sistersville
schools, graduating from the High School with high hon-
ors, at the age of eighteen years.
His aspiration and plans were to continue his education
at Harvard University ; but the great Reaper scarcely per-
mitted the blossom of youth to burst into the flower of
manhood, and he went to be with the Great Teacher.
His was a wonderfully active mind, and he was, unu-
sually well informed on the vital topics of the day, the
best in literature art, and science.
He was very fond, also, of the biographies of our
greatest writers, thinkers, and inventors, reading only the
worth-while books and magazines, those which contain food
After graduation he was employed by the Standard
Oil Company. He had a natural aptitude and capacity for
business affairs and had his life been spared, he would
without doubt, have climbed to the greatest heights of suc-
He took his initiatory degree in Masonry at the earliest
possible opportunity — the day after he attained the age of
twenty-one — when he became a member of Mt. Olivet
Lodge, No. 3, A. F. and A. M. of Parkersburg, W. Va.
This seemed fitting, since his great, great, great grand
father. General Rufus Putnam, was the first Grand Master
of the Grand Lodge in the State of Ohio, at Marietta, Ohio,
and his father, Mr. E. 0. Bower was Grand Commander of
the Knights Templar of W. Va.
His maternal grandmother was a descendant of Col.
John Wyatt of Revolutionary fame.
His maternal grandfather George A. Howe, is one of
the leading citizens of Washington County and a descend-
ant of two of the oldest families in the Ohio Valley, num-
bering among his ancestors. General Rufus Putnam, Fath-
er of Ohio, and Perley Howe, who was one of the jurors who
tried Aaron Burr for treason.
It was no wonder then, since he had more than proved
himself worthy of such noble ancestry, that his heart burn-
ed with patriotism at the call of President Wilson for Vol-
unteers in our recent world's conflict, and was only kept
from enlisting, by ill health.
Endowed with a cheerful, generous, forgiving dispo-
sition, he made hosts of friends, and people in every walk
of life, received the little helpful favors and sunny smiles
which smoothed out many rough places in life, without his
being conscious that he had done anything unusual.
"It's doing the little "extras."
The things we're not asked to do;
The favors that help one's brother.
To trust in God and you.
It's doing, I say, the "extras,"
The things not looked for, you know.
That will bring us our King's kind notice,
A "well done," as on we go."
Coming in the very morning of life, and cutting short
a career that had every promise of marked usefulness and
success, his sudden failure in health and his death were a
crushing sorrow to his hosts of friends to whom his mem-
ory will be filled with the fragrance which arises from the
recollection of many loving deeds.
"We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths;
In feelings, not in figures on a dial.
We should count time by heart-throbs; he most lives
Who thinks most, feels the noblest.
Acts the best."
MRS. SUSAN D. (WILLIAMS) DICKINSON.
Mrs. Susan D. (Williams) Dickinson was born at Char-
lemont, Franklin County, Massachusetts, December 27, 1836.
She spent her childhood in a country home and was edu-
cated in Shellburne Falls Academy and Mount Holyoke
Female Seminary. She taught several years in Massachu-
setts and in Illinois and was married to Rev. C. E. Dickin-
son, the compiler of this book, Oct. 1st, 1863. For more
than half a century she has been a helpmate indeed in his
work in the following churches : First Congregational, Oak
Park, 111., First Congregational, Elgin Ills. Fi^\st Congre-
gational, Marietta, Ohio, First Congregational, Windham,
Ohio, Columbia Congregational, Cincinnati, Ohio and First
Congregational, Belpre, Ohio. In all these places she has
been a leader in Ladies Missionary and other societies.
In Marietta she was president of a Clhautauqua Circle, and
graduated from that institution in 1889. She was a citizen
of Belpre for eight years from 1906 to 1914. She was a
leader in the Ladies Missionary Society of the Congrega-
tional Church and also an eminently successful Adult Bible
Class teacher in the Sunday School.
She also furnished several valuable essays for the
Woman's Reading Club. She and her husband have re-
sided in Marietta, since 1914. At the ripe age of eighty-
three years she is still a comfort and inspiration to her
family and friends.
MRS. NANCY ARMSTRONG
Mrs. Nancy Armstrong is of Scotch-Irish descent and
was born in the western part of Pennsylvania in 1841. She
removed with her parents to Marietta, Ohio in 1854, and
was educated in Marietta High School. She taught for
some time in the schools of that city, and in 1866 accepted
the position of Principal in Belpre Academy, where she
continued until the organization of Belpre High School.
In 1873 she was joined in marriage with William Arn^-
strong who had been employed in the United States Com-
missary department during the Civil War and later accept-
ed a position in the First National Bank of Parkersburg,
West Va., with which institution he continued forty-five
years; Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong have lived all this time in
Belpre, strongly attached to the village and people and
specially to the Congregational Church of which they are
active and esteemed members. For most of these years
Mrs. Armstrong has been a teacher in the Sunday School
and is specially gifted as an Adult Class teacher. She was
one of the organizers and still an active member of the
Belpre Womans Reading Club," of which she was president
for several years. She is also an active member of the
Belpre Historical Society. She has made a life long study
of science and literature and the results of her extensive
reading are a great assistance in the work of these organi-
zations. She is an active member of the Missionary So-
ciety and other organizations in her own church, and is
also interested and willing to aid other churches and benev-
olent enterprises which benefit humanity. We hope her
useful life may continue many years an example and in-
spiration to the younger portion of the Community.
JOHN KENNETH CHRISTOPHER
Corporal John Kenneth Christopher, son of Charles S.
and Flora Spencer Christopher, was born July 15th, 1894,
and was killed in battle November 1, 1918 at Argonne For-
est in the last great drive of the European War. He en-
listed June 13th, 1817 at Wheeling, West Virginia, and was
transferred to Philadelphia Marine Barracks for training.
Five weeks later he was on the way to France where he was
enrolled in the 5th Regiment of Marines. February 15,
1918 he went into the trenches with his regiment which won
an enviable reputation in the battles of Chateau Thierry,
June 6th, also June 21-26, at Soissons July 18-19. St.
Mihiel Sector, September 12-16, Argonne Woods, Novem-
ber 1. He was wounded in September and was in hospital
for a time, but returned to the regiment in season to be
in the fight at Argonne where he gave his life as a sacrifice
on the altar of freedom. Corporal Christopher was bom
and spent his youth in the beautiful Ohio Valley, and was
educated in the Belpre Schools. As a lad he was generous,
self sacrificing and courageous, and gained many warm
friends who anticipated for him a successful career. He
became a member of the Congregational Church of Belpre,
about three years before his enlistment. In the Sunday
School he belonged to a class known as Boy Scouts under
the care of Miss Persis P. Howe. Of this class more than
twenty were in some branch of service during the war.
Letters received from Corporal Christopher indicated that
his Christian character was maintained and strengthened
by his war experience. He was one of the first men in
Belpre to enlist and the first to give his life. Millions of
young men were sacrificed during this terrible war and
there is mourning in millions of homes, and yet the sorrow
is as great in each individual home as though they were
the only sufferers, and Belpre should as tenderly cherish
the memory of her martyrs as though no other community
had been afflicted.
February 16th a very interesting and impressive mem-
orial service was held in the Congregational church, and
roses and poppies will probably continue to bloom over an
unknown grave "Somewhere in France."
Corporal John Kenneth Christopher and Frank Brown-
ing were Belpre's two martyrs in this war.
REV. CYRUS BYINGTON
In 1820 a Company of missionary colonists and teach-
ers, on their way by boat to their mission work among the
Choctaw Indians stopped for a time at Marietta where the
people became very much interested in them and made
generous contributions for their work. This company was
led by Rev. Cyrus Byington who commenced active life as
a lawyer but soon consecrated himself to the work of a
Christian minister and prepared for service as a Foreign
Missionary. When this company started down the river
in their flat boats and passed Belpre Mr. George Dana, Sr.,
knowing their business wrote in his journal as follows :
"The Missionary Boat has arrived from Marietta on
her way to the Choctaw Nation. The plan of enlightening
the Savages is certainly philanthropic, to say nothing of
the importance of giving them the gospel. They are an
injured people; have been driven from their rightful pos-
sessions by the whites ; have became as it were a remnant
that will soon be extinguished unless arrested in their
downward career; the plan of Missions and schools has
been devised for that purpose. Human generosity and jus-
tice conspire to dictate its formation. As they become in-
formed they will become amalgamated with the whites, — be
brought under the mild sway of our laws, and become a
happy and useful people and be an accession to the nation.
And who that has experienced the influence of the gospel
would not rejoice in assisting to send it to this dark and
benighted people? May prosperity attend the Mission."
Mr. Dana did not know what influence these missionaries
were to exert upon his family during the coming years.
Mr. Byington continued this missionary service for
nearly half a century, occasionally visiting Marietta "and
Belpre, where he spoke in the churches and people con-
tinued their interest in the work. In 1827 he was married
to Miss Sophia Nye of Marietta who for forty years shared
with him their arduous and self denying work.
In 1852 their daughter, Lucy Byington, bom on the
Missionary field, was married to Dea George Dana, Jr., and
spent the remainder of her life a faithful wife and mother
in the Dana home. When her father and mother retired
from the Mission after the Civil War in 1866, they came
to Belpre and made their home for a time with this daugh-
ter. In 1867 Mr. Byington published reminiscences of his
work in the New York Observer from which we make the
"We left Marieta with our hearts greatly refreshed
and encouraged in our undertaking. We had heard of the
Blennerhassett Island, named for the wealthy gentleman
who settled on it, and built his fine palace and out houses
there, and who was visited to his ruin by Aaron Burr. We
have read Mr. Wirts description of the Island, the house
and the family, a description rarely surpassed by our gifted
writers. When we passed along we saw his seat in ruins,
burned down, the chimneys still standing. Little could I
know or think while gazing on these ruins on our way to
the Choctaws, that forty-six years after I should retire,
wearied and worn, to find a home, a quiet room for prayer
and study, on the banks of the Ohio and adjacent to this
same Island, and my own daughter, her husband and their
children there to welcome me, feed me, nourish and
strengthen me, in the hope that I might do a little more
for our blessed Saviour. It is even so. It was in that
room I revised the translation and reconstructed and wrote
out the Choctaw grammar."
This grammar was published for its literary merit by
the "Pensylvania Historical and Philosophical Society." He
also prepared a very complete Choctaw Dictionary which
was published by the "Smithsonian Institute."
The fact that the Indians in this country have adopted
the English as their written language has prevented the
continued use of these books, but they will perpetuate an
extinct dialect and are a valuable monument of self-deny-
ing missionary labor. In Andover Theological Seminary Mr.
Byington was associated with Luther Bingham, Pliny Fisk,
Levi Parsons, and others who became eminent in Foreign
and Home Missionary Work. He was eminent for his
scholarship and devoted piety. A friend wrote of him:
"Brother Byington's raiment seemed perfumed with spirit-
ual myrrh, and, like Harlan Page, wherever he went his
theme was Jesus and his great Salvation. "
Aided by his devoted wife, he reduced the Choctaw
language to writing and published in it several books in-
cluding portions of the Scriptures.
He received into the Churches nine hundred Christian
Choctaws, and to all of these he was a Spiritual father.
After retiring to Belpre he purchased and removed to a
home in which he died December 31, 1868.
Mrs. Sophia Nye Byington spent her last years with
her daughter in the Dana home where she died February 4,
1880. Both were buried in Rockland Cemetery. This
Providential connection of Belpre with Foreign Missions
is interesting and should be remembered by future genera-
HERBERT S. CURTIS
Herbert Spencer Curtis was born in Newbury Ohio,
June 6, 1867, and was the son of Austin L. and Betha Put-
nam Curtis. He was a descendant of two of the pioneer
families of Belpre Township who had a leading part in
the formation of a State in the wilderness. He selected
dentistry as his chosen profession in life and opened an
office in Parkersburg, West Virginia where he had a suc-
cessful practice for about eighteen years. He gave his ser-
vice freely and generously to many deserving children par-
ticularly those in the Children's Home of Parkersburg. He
resided several years in Belpre Village where he was a pub-
lic spirited citizen and gave an earnest support to every
enterprise which benefitted the community.
He was married in 1904 to Bernice A. Smith of Belpre
to whom two sons were born, John Austin, and Henry
Dr. Curtis was a charter member of the Belpre Ma-
sonic Lodge No. 609, and also a member of Parkersburg
Lodge No. 198, B. P. 0. Elks. On July 8th, 1919, Dr.
Curtis and his son John Austin were instantly killed on a
grade crossing at Little Hocking. They were on their way
in an automobile to the Curtis farm in Newbury which
they frequently visited. As there were no witnesses to the
accident it cannot be described. It was a great shock to
the whole community and a loud call for better safeguards
at our railway grade crossings.
John Austin, eldest son of Herbert S. and Bernice A.
Curtis, was born in Parkersburg, May 20, 1906. He w^as
a quiet, lovable boy, a favorite with his companions, a
diligent scholar and an omniverous reader. At the time
of his death he w^as a pupil in the Parkersburg Junior High
School and gave promise of a bright future career.
December 25th, 1844, "The Ladies Sewing and Educa-
tion Society" of the First Congregational Church of Mar-
ietta decided that they would devote their energies to the
work of raising money to purchase a pipe organ for the
church. This gave an impulse to their work for the next
three years. In addition to their regular semi-monthly
meetings they indulged in suppers, fairs, and concerts.
They purchased the organ of Mr. L. P. Bailey of Zanesville,
Ohio in 1845, though the last payment was not made until
the following year. The amount paid at that time with the
help of about one hundred dollars donated by the gentlemen
is given as follows:
For the organ and all the expense attending it, freight
traveling expenses, organist from Zanesville, etc. $825
Expenses on the church, whitewashing, painting, etc.... 35
For presents, organ blower, etc 40
This organ gave great satisfaction to the church and
congregation and wa.s used for forty-three years or until
1889 when another was purchased. It was thought by the
members of the Marietta Church that the organ was still
capable of furnishing music which would be helpful in
Christian worship and they donated it to the Congregation-
al Church of Belpre where it has rendered very acceptable
service for nearly thirty years and is still in use.
If not the oldest it certainly is one of the oldest church
organs in Southern Ohio and deserves a place in this his-
The early history of Belpre embraced a period when
individuals and families removed here to establish homes
and develop the resources of the land, that they might oc-
cupy it as farms; as a result an agricultural community
was developed and the tide of emigration continued until the
land was cleared of forest trees, fruit orchards planted,
and the fields prepared for cultivation. The time neces-
sarily came when immigration decreased and a little later
emigration commenced. This changing condition is exper-
ienced in all farming communities. With a normal in-
crease in population, there will soon be more boys and girls
than can be employed on the farms, and the growing vil-
lages and cities will continually need such young men and
women as the farms produce. The introduction of im-
proved farm machinery nearly compensates for the increas-
ed labor of intense farming. As a result of these facts
census reports show that the population in rural communi-
ties either remains about stationary or decreases. We
know that Belpre was very fortunate in the character of
the first settlers who were educated in New England and
strengthened in character by the stirring events of our
Revolutionary struggle. These pioneers were character-
ized by intelligence, industry, and morality. While they
diligently developed their farms and homes, they were just
as faithful and consciencious in establishing schools and
churches, by which they so educated their children that
when they reached mature years they were prepared to
continue the characteristics of their home town whether
they remained here or removed to establish homes in other
places. Emigration from Belpre commenced only a few de-
cades after the first settlement and has not only continued
until the present but must continue. In some cases de-
scendants of pioneers have continued to occupy the original
farms for several generations, some even to the present
time. In such cases those who remain represent only a
single line of the descendants; in most cases many more
have removed to other places. While there may have been
an occasional exception, as is likely to be true while the
world is so full of temptations, most of these emigrants
have been an honor to their families and to their home town.
These men and women have disseminated the sterling prin-
ciples of the pioneers and of their Belpre homes in hun-
dreds of communities in various portions of our country.
Almost every branch of business as well as of the various
professions are represented by men and women from Belpre
It is true of a community as of an individual that none can
live for itself alone, and so Belpre not only has perpetuated
the industry, intelligence and morality of its founders, this
work must continue to be carried on by those now active in
the affairs of human life.
It is true we now have an organized village, with a
population which is in some measure different from those
we usually designate as farmers. Causes are quite likely
to arise in the future which will increase the population
and employment of the inhabitants of the village, but this,
as also the rural districts, must continue to contribute to
other communities some of their most valuable products,
namely, men and women, and the character of these must
depend very largely upon the homes of their childhood and
the schools and churches in which they are educated. We
some times hear persons complain of the heavy burdens
imposed upon them to support schools and churches, if any
such shall read these pages we would ask them to consider
how much the Belpre of today is indebted not only to the
characters of the pioneers but also to the institutions they
established and sustained. Schools and churches caused
even greater sacrifices and self denials then than now.
We, who now enjoy our great privileges, needed the
labors and self-denials of our ancestors, and our descend-
ants will just as truly need our self-denials and sacrifices.
Freely we have received, we should freely and willingly
give. As the pioneers of a century ago were laying up
treasures for us so we are laying up treasures for these
who shall follow us.
It is also true that the relation of Belpre to Parkers-
burg should be an inspiration to improve our community.
Ohio and West Virginia are not only adjoining States, they
are vitally connected with each othe^. During the early
days of the Civil War it was claimed by the advocates of
the doctrine of "State rights" that troops from one State
had no right to invade the territory of another state, but
Governor Dennison of Ohio thought differently, and an-
nounced that "He would permit no theory to prevent the de-
fense of our State, but we would defend her where it cost
least and accomplished most, above all we will defend her
beyond rather than on her borders." In May, 1862 loyal
citizens of Parkersburg appealed to Governor Dennison to
send troops to occupy the town against the approaching
Confederates, which appeal was successful and effective.
The campaign which won for the Union twenty-four of the
Western Counties of Virginia and resulted in the organiza-
tion of the separate State of West Virginia was accomplish-
ed mainly by the militia of Ohio under the lead of General
George B. McClellan who was commissioned by Governor
Dennison. During subsequent years Ohio has contributed
much to West Virginia. A Governor and two United
States Senators were originally Ohio men. West Virginia
has also made very valuable contributions to Ohio.
Though Parkersburg and Belpre are in different States
they are really separated only by an imaginary line. Their
business, social, educational, and religious relations are
mutual, and in many respects identical. Many business and
professional men in Parkersburg either were Belpre boys
or are descendants of Belpre families.
Most of the marketable products of Belpre famns and
gardens either pass into or through Parkersburg. A large
portion of the trade and banking business of Belpre is done
in Parkersburg, and hundreds of people cross the Bridge
every day going to and from their business. When trolley
cars run across the bridge, as it is supposed they will soon
do, entertainments can be attended by the people of Belpre
almost as conveniently as by those of Parkersburg.
It is evident that these two communities have a mutual
dependence on each other, which creates a mutual responsi-
bility for each others welfare and so it is the duty of the
people in each place to make the most possible of their pos-
When we consider the improvements which have been
made in business, social, family, and individual life, the
multiplication of books, periodicals, and libraries, the bet-
ter adaptations of our schools and churches to the needs of
all classes of people, it certainly is not too much to call
upon each individual to aim to be at least a little wiser, a
little more useful, and a little better than those who have
gone before us.
The world is making progress. This progress will con-
tinue and each one of us should feel some responsibility for
it. If all the people improve the community as a whole
will advance. We therefore counsel everj^ man, woman
and child who is permitted to enjoy a good Belpre to aim
to be and do something which will help transmit to the next
generation a better Belpre.
Adams. N. B.. 172
African Methodist Churches, 1S7
Agricultural Society, Prizes, 105
Alarm at Night, 53
Allen. Mr. "Old Charon", lUU
Alston, Governor, 98
Amherst, Rev. Gray, 185
Amusements in Farmers Castle,
Ames, Cyrus and Sarah P.. 223
Ames. Dr. Frank P., 123, 132, 223
Andre. Mr.. 6is
Andrews, Prof, of M. R. .^^2
Antoinette Marie (Quern), 5
Armstrong. John, Family Mur-
Armstrong. William, 229
Armstrong, Mrs. Nancy Porter-
field. 171, 228.
Arnold Benedict, 52
Atwater, Caleb, 159
Baldwin, Jonathan. 39. 167
Baltimore & Ohio R. R.. 160
Barker. Judge, Notes trom, 10
Barkley. Samuel. 101
Bartlette. Harry Gray, 119
Baptist Church at Little Hock-
Bancroft, Capt. Edward, 34
Barnes, Dr., 42
Barkley, Governor. 126
Barkley, Mary, 172
Barkley and Downer Tannery,
Battelle. Col. Ebenezer, 18, 70.
Battelle. Services conducted by,
Bell. James M., 169
Benedict House, 85
Belpre, Origin of Name, 9
Bennett. Joel, 101
Big Bottom Massacre. 18
Blennerhassett Island, 8
Blennerhassett, Harman, 93. 96
Bower. George Howe, 226
Bradford, MaJ. Robert, escape
from Indians, 29
Biographical Sketch. 78
Brown, Mr. and Mrs., Settlers
at Newbury attacked by In-
dians and Mrs. Brown and
child murdered, 37, 38
Brown, C. A., 172
Brown, L. D., 177
Browning, Miss C. circulates
Temperance Pledge, 114
Browning, Miss Abble 122
Browning, A. H., 162
Browning, A. W.. 171
Browning. Parks S., 172
Browning, William, 179
Browning. Frank, Belpre's
Bull Brothers, 80
Bull. Harlow, attacks Indians 29
Butler, Gen. Richard, 4
Brough, Col. C. H., Ill
Burr, Aaron, 93, 95, 97
Euell. Gen.. 95
Euell. Timothy Contract for
Burroughs. Jar\is. 101
Burroughs. William, 101
Burgess. Rev. Dyar. 113
Butler. Gen. B. F.. 140
Buchanan. Pres. James, 139
Burns. J. J., 175
Burial of the Dead, 189
Byington. Rev. Cyrus, Mission-
ary to Choctaws. 230
Byington. Mrs. Sophia Nye, 231
Cass. Hon. Lewis. 203
Canada. French Settlement in
Caldwell. Jas., Ranger, 41
Celeron, French officer, 3
Centennial Church. 186
Chase, Hon. Salmon P., letter
Choctaw Mission, 230
Chamberlain, L. H., Surveyor
Christopher, Corp. John Ken-
neth, Belpre's Martyr. 221, 229
Chillicothe, Indian Town, 50
Chateau Thiery, 215
Clough, Aaron, 80
Clemenceau, M., 216
Confederate State of America,
Corwin, Hon. Thomas, letter
Cook, Pardon, 101
Coolc, Johnson, 84
Cook, Charles, 171
Cooper, Lemuel, 101
Congregational Church, organ-
ized in 1827, 181
Cox, Prof. B. S., 172
Covert, Way, 1
Cotton, Miss Willia unveils
Colville, Andrew, 111
Collins, John, 169
Crotte, Mrs. Andrew, 200
Cutler, Judge Ephraim, lOV
Secures Aboilition of Slavery, 87
Diary, 107 etc.
Curtis, Capt. Eleaser, 80
Curtis, A. L., 131
Curtis, Horace, 131
Curtis, Judffe Walter, 81-186
Cushing, Col. Nathaniel, 64
Gushing, Captain of Silver
Cutler, W. P., 125, 161
Cunningham, Leander, 185
Cunningham, E. E., 185
Curtis. Dr. H. S., 232
Curtis, John A., 233
Dana, Capt. William, 43, 63
Dana, Edward B., 100, 189
Dana, George, lOl
Dana, Edmund, 20
Dana, George Jr., 163, 171
Dana, Mrs. Mary B., 32
Dana, Miss Mary W., 114
Dana Canning Co., 163
Davis, Moses, i30
Davis, Jonas, Murdered. 57
Davis, Jefferson, 140
Delano, Cornelius, Ranger, 41
Dennison, Gov. William, 136, 158
Devol, Capt. William, 36, 44, 50
Devol, Capt. Charles 101
Devol, Charles, Account of
Daughters of Rebeckah. 206
Deshler, Mrs. William G.. 200
Dilley, Joseph, 101
Dickinson, Mrs. S. W., 228
Dunham, Amos, 176
Dunham, Persis, Murdered by
Duncan Falls, 10
Dunham Township, 6
Emerson, Caleb, 129
Eaton, Hon. John, Commission-
er of Education, 175
Ellenwood, Daniel, 184
Ellenwood, Miss Elizabeth, 188
Farmers Castle, 18, 19
Famine in Belpre, 11
Farmers Club Organized, 165
Farson, Joseph, 1
Finch, L. J., 185
Floating Mill, 35
Fleehart, Joshua. 30, 41
Foutz, Mrs. Kate Browning 6
P'oster, Peregrene, 82
Ferry Established, 87
Frost, Elam, 101
Free Masons, Early Lodge, 202
Foch, Marshall Ferdinand, 275
Fort Harmar, 48
Galissoneire, Marquis DeLa, 3
Gay, Frederic Wife and Children
Garner, Daniel, 125
Gibbs, D. S., 133
Gilman, B. I., 60, 67
Gilbert, F. E.. j.ya
Gilbert, Mrs. Lucy E., organized
Sunday School, 182
Girls Missionary Society, 188
Glazier, Hon. A. W., 223
Glazier, Potter and Rathbone,
Goodale. Maj. Nathan, 20
Goodale, Removes to Garrison,
Goodale, Kidnapped, 45
Goodale. Biographical, 74
Goss, Daniel, 112, 121, 185
Goodno, Dr. Charles, 172
Grange, Little Hocking, 208
Green, Griffin, 17, 61, 36, 49
Guilford, Nathan, 169, 170
Guthrie Brothers, 79
Guthrie Erastus, 112
Great Britain, War with, 1812, 99
Haskell, I\Iaj. Jonathan, 67
Harris, Thadius M., 8G
Hurris, William L., 140
Hale, Edward Everett, 102
Hall of Mirrors. 216
Harry (a freed slave), 131
Henderson, Josiah, 185
Harwood, Mr., 123
Harwood. George, 124
High School Commencement, 173
Hildreth, Pioneer History, 7
Hoge, James, 169
Honor Roll, Civil War, 144
Honor Roll, European War, 219
Howe. Perly, 79. 121, 179, 181
Howe, Perly and William, 112
Howe, George A., 224
Howe, Mrs. George A., 196
Howe, Miss Persis Pntnam, 199
Hubbard, Edna. 172
Hulbert Benoni, Murdered, 30
Hulburt, J. B., 171
Indian Mound on land of Jesse
Indian Mound opened and con-
tents described, 1 and 2
Insurance, Mutual, 35
Intelligencer, Marietta, 128
Jefferson, Pres. Thomas, 95, 96,
Jackson, Pres. Andrew, 102
James, John, 58
Jamison, Maj. 62
Johnson, C. H., Druggist, 163.
King, Capt. Zebulon, Murdered,
Kitt, (Christopher Putnam), 24
Kenawha River, 3
Kerr, George, 41
Kingsbury, Rev. Addison, 181,
Kincheloe, Mr., 131
Kilborne, Hon. James, 200
Kissel, Harry, Grand Master
Knights of Maccabees, 206
Knights of Pythias, 207
Knowles, James 81
Lawton, James, 101
Ladies Aid Society, 188
Leaden Plate found at Marietta,
Leading Creek, 52
Lewis, Samuel, 171
Lewis, Perry, 124
Lewis, Frederic and Mary, 185
Leisure, Calvin, 185
Little, Nathaniel. 28
Little Hocking, 4-8
Little Hocking Mill, 17
Little Hocking Bridge, 109
Little Hocking Methodist
Little Kenawha, 8
Little, Rev. J;:<?ob, 181
Lincoln, Pres. Abraham, 135, 136
Loring, Oliver Rice, 112, 222
Loring, Daniel, 222
Loring, Maj. F. H., 114
Loraine, Creighton, 125
Low Gap, 6
Louis XV of France, 3
Marietta, Origin of Name, 5
Madison, Pres. James, 99
Mason & Dixon's Line, 116
Marietta & Cincinnati, R. R. 161
Marsh, Crandal & Co., Pump
McGee, John, 45
McClellan, Gen. G. B., 236
McComas, Judge, 129
McDowell, Governor of Vir-
Mayo, Daniel, 39, 167
Meeker, Col. Forest, 46
Methodist First Preachers, 163
Methodist, First Class, 183
Methodist Meeting House, built,
Methodist Meeting House at
McNeal, C. L., 202
McNeal, Mrs. C. L., 202
McGee, Miss Cornelia, 199
Miles, Capt. Benjamin, 29
Miles, Large Cattle Killed, 78
Mexican War, 111
Misner, Absalom, 101
Mixner, Peter, 57
Methodist Meeting house Raised
Without Liquor, 213
Mills, John, 161
Miles, Benjamin H., 181
Morse, Nehemiah, 101
Moore, Mrs. Lydia L. 122
Mustapha Island, 5. 131
Murders at Newbury, 37
Newbury, Lower Settlement, 8
Neils Station, Two Boys Mur-
Neal, George, 119
Neal, William, Slave Owner, 131
Newspapers in Belpre, 164
New Orleans, Battle, 102
Nicholson, John, 54
Nigger Run, 131
Northrup, W. W., 172
Nye, Auselm T., 99, 125, 189
Oaks, Joel, Ranger, 41
Odd Fellows Lodge, 205
Odd Fellows Lodge, Colored, 208
Ohio Land Co., 4
O'Neal, Colbert, 185
O'Neal, Joseph, 184
Orton, Edward, 175
Ordinance of 1787, 117
Orr, Rev. J. W., 186
Old Organ, 233
Parkersburg, 129, 124, 142
Parkersburg, Relation to Belpre,
Patterson, Benjamin, Ranger, 41
Partridge, Daniel, 123
Peach Brandy, 86
Peacey & Son, Flouring Mill,
Pierce, Isaac, Librarian, 176
Phelps, Col. Hugh, 96
Polk, Pres. James K., Ill
Pillars, Isaiah, 175
Pomeroy, Rev. Augustus, 181
Potter, Miss Alice K., 200
Pork Burned, 26
Preston, Mrs. Laura Curtis, 4,
Preston, H. S., 133
Pride, Jesse, 1
Providential Escape, 54
Putnam Family Library, 175
Putnam, Col. Israel, 71, 85
Putnam, Aaron Waldo, 28, 72
Putnam, W. B., 101
Putnam, David, 123
Putnam, Douglas, 161
Rations, War of 1812, 102
Red Stone, Young men sent
Religious Services in Farmers
Reid, Dr., Dedicated Methodist
House of Worship, 185.
Red Cross Society, 213
Revolutionary Soldiers buried in
Rouse, Miss Bathshebah, 39, 167
Robbins, Rev. Samuel P., 163
Robbins, Rev. Thomas, 180
Roberts, Martin, Ship Builder,
Rogers, James, Ranger, 28
Ronaine, Rev. 123
Roman Catholic Churches, 158
Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 112
Salt Spring Discovered, 52
Saionj. Baron, 217
Sargeant Winthrop, 74
Scarlet Fever, 38
Schools in Farmers Castle, 39
Seebert, Prof. W. H., 118
Shaw, John L., Escape, 27
Shaw, Mrs. Dora, 173
Shotwell, Titus, 125
Sheep, Introduced in Belpre, 85
Silver Grays, 100
Signing Peace Treaty, 216
Small Pox in Farmers Castle 41
Smith, Joseph, a British Pris-
Smith, Joseph, of Vincent, 130
Simrills Ferry, (West Newton,
Shepherd. John, Ranger, 41
Sowers, Rev. J. E., 185
Snow, John, Grand Master
Spencer, Dr., Raised Cotton, 44
Spies and Rangers, 40
Sproat, Col. 41
Steadman, Capt. Bial, 100
St. Clair, Governor. 75
Straus, W. M., 200
Stones Garrison, 44
Stone, Capt. Jonathan, 73
Stone, Jonathan, 142
Stone, Capt. John, 99, 121
Stone, Capt. John, House Moved,
Stone, Mr. John M., 122
Stone, Melissa, 122
Stone, Lorin E., 171
Stone, B. F., 180
Story, Rev. Daniel, 40, 179
Stanton, Biirdon. 125
Sunday School Organized, 182
Sunday School in Warren, 1S3
Swornstead, Rev. LoRoy, 184
Suspension Bridge. 165
Taylor, Israel, 95
Temple. .Miss Hannah. 171
Tiffin. Governor of Ohio, 05
Thomas. .Mordacai, 125
Temperance Pledge, 114
True. Dr.. 42
T;ittle. J. W.. ir,2
Turkeys, Abundant, 15
Tyler, Comfort, 95
Underground Railroad, 118
Universalist Churches. 186
Vansan. A Violinist from Galli-
Vickers, Pilots Fugutives, 132
Vinton, Hon. Samuel F., 128
Vinton, Hon. Samuel, letter from
Villars, Dr. and Wife, 187
Village, Incorporated, 152
Vinegar P'actory, 163
Walkiit. Thomas. 120
Ward, Nathan. 125
Washita River, 94, 97
Washington, George, 4
Washington, s tJottom, 4
Warren Township, 6
"Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 28, 56
Waterman. Sherman, 58
Wells, Randal S., 132
West Virginia a Separate State,
Whitaker, Mrs. 46
Williams History of Washington
County 1, 4
Wilkinson, James, 97
Williams, Isaac, Furnished Corn
Wolf Creek Mills, 18
Wolf Hunt, 104